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Lecture 4

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Political Science
Christopher Cochrane

st POLB52: Lecture 4 – January 31 2012 Theories force us to clarify our thinking about topics. In psychological explanation, we are psychological animals and we have characteristics we share in common even animals. We have psychological characteristics that are different, different dispositions. Worldviews  Ideology – refers to all kinds of different things but mostly as belief system in politics which is an individualistic way of thinking about ideology. Converse –“a configuration of ideas and attitudes in which the elements are bound together by some form of constraint...” o We have thoughts about how the world would be. o Belief system – interrelated ideas and attitudes bound together with some constraint. (Converse) o Constraint –*slide* Ex. If you tell me your opinions about gay adoption. Should gay couples be allowed to adopt children? Some degree of success in predicting your opinion about gay adoption given some knowledge to your idea. o Probability that change in precede status of one idea element *slide* Different kinds of ideas we hold.  Ex. You support of all kinds of policies that are design to restrict green house gas emission that makes the environment bad. Global warming is manmade, if I could prove that green house gases wasn’t created by humans then your belief system is wrong. o Each of us harbours a believe system but have some common beliefs. This is why people talk about left and right. People can dislike conservative, socialism, liberalism, etc. o Some of us may not be conscious about ideology or developed ideology yet.  Where do they get worldview ideas? Some ideas that we are committed to we cannot believe other people doesn’t believe in them (ex. Equal rights). They are in fact fundamentally rare worldwide.  Ideology is often used to refer to property or a group of society. (Catholic, Islamic, liberal ideology) Mariheim- It’s the idea that there’s a worldview as a group as a whole where we can list characteristics of its ideology. Each people in the group don’t share all of the ideology in that group. It’s not about the aggregation about our thoughts. A group ideology is not some idea that every group people share. o If we live in a free society where we can be exposed to any knowledge, why do we agree with each other on these matters of fundamental principal and we completely agree with ideas that other people from different countries don’t agree too?  Culture – group world view. (political scientist) – General ideas of a group, societies have culture, they persist in time but they change in time slowly, certain culture being meanable to the development of democracy. There’s a slow democracy development because some cultures never accepted it yet), Provincial culture – political culture – to what extent there’s different culture, political culture? Why do these differences exist? Canadian culture is defined very differently before. It was seen as being humble, and reserved. They weren’t loud etc. Canadian nationalism has been defeated and the society will be indistinguishable from the United States (Grant) o Two challenges –  Problem 1: how do the individual and the group interact with each other to produce ideologies and culture? Groups do not exist without the individuals that constitute it but the individual’s culture doesn’t constitute without the group. We pass many different things to the people around us (influences). (ex. health habits, smoking, depression, ) Groups can affect the individual.  Problem 2: What are the sources of ideological and cultural disagreement? A lot of People disagree on politics passionately. People could hate the people they disagree with. What happens to somebody to make people think like this? Information-Predisposition Relations  Explaining World Views - relationship between information and predisposition. Zaller- ”Every opinion is a marriage of information and predisposition: information to form a mental picture of the given issue, and predisposition to motivate some conclusion about it.”  Ex. Should we give people more votes to people who are more smarter/working more? Some would say no because of equality rights but should we give people more money to people who are more smarter/working? Some would say yes because economics. Therefore there’s inconsistent views in life - Slide picture: he was a racist; O.J. Simpson had a history of beating his wife. His wife and her friend was brutally murder in her yard. They had a trial. OJ Simpson has been beating his wife over a period of time, but attorney says lots of men beat their wives but very few kill them. Given the probably 99 percent, it’s the husband that killed his wife but didn’t use this statistics. They found O.J. gloves with blood, but he said that the glove doesn’t fit so it wasn’t him. There’s a whole reason why he’s guilty. Then someone said he was a racist over black people, one group (black people) was ha
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