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POLB50Y3 (205)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3 POLB52.docx

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Political Science
Mcc Alllister

Lecture 3  How should we actually study Canada?  What method ,what theory, what ways of understanding politics and society  Group level analysis think of society in different view of how groups and how groups interacts, for example pluralism, Marxism cleavage theory and state level approach  Individuals level approaches- study of politics in individual human being analysis of what we know about individuals- two theories rational choice theory and political psychology theory  Institutional approaches study of politics in society- institution rules (set of ideas) rules that govern relationship between individuals  Institution Rules are can be written or unwritten rules  Were in a institution and because there are specific rules in this context that govern our relationship that might not apply to another context were in a classroom in a university there a rules that formal that we follow however it might not apply outside because it’s a different context  Supreme court, bureaucracy , parliament, are all political institutions  Institutional approaches focus on the rules that structure the relationship between people  Electoral system focuses on different way of counting the results of votes  We have a first class electoral system the party that most votes in their constituency wins the vote and all the other parties lose if you get 30 percent of the vote and no other parties get more than you, you win the seat  Just by changing the rules the institution the decision of the individual the decision of the people changes the preferences didn’t change what changed was the rules and the rules changes the behavior changes as result it changes the way the people think and they way people behave  Federalism is a set of rules and institutions that govern the relationship between governments for example (federal, municipal and provincial government relationships)  The emerge of federalism is when a group of societies that wanted their own government (Quebec wanting their own sub national government)  When we created federalism we create provinces such (Quebec and Ontario didn’t exist many years ago and how they are today)  People in Ontario distinguish them as ontarioians because of the creation of provinces  Provinces are considered to be purely institutions that govern the relationship between people and they have an effect on the people facts that were put to govern institutions and people  Weakness of the senate – in US everyone is focused on the federal government- senate of the federal is where your state representative  Senate in Canada has no power- Canadians look at provincial government because senate its not a effect representation that’s why provincial comes in  Impact of the charter- extent to which were we think we of ourselves as right bearing citizen Americans in 1982 had the ability for their rights to be read to them prior to arrest and officers must state the reasons why they’re getting arrested  In 1982 Canada did not have a charter that protected you from the state - old cliché was that Canadians required why they were arrested had to ability when they are arrested they have their rights read to them and most likely wouldn’t happen many people thought they had this right  Politics in the charter govern people and set rules starts to get increasingly discussed in legal terms  Supreme court becomes important  when there is a political debate in the country it doesn’t get debated if it’s a good idea or not, it gets debated in terms if you can do something or you can’t whether you cannot or you must do something  State doesn’t argue that the should it recognize same sex marriage but the state argues that the state has to recognize same sex marriage  State doesn’t argue that women should get abortion on demand but the state argues must allow women to get abortion on demand  Charter of rights provided fundamental change to the Canadian political culture the advent of the charter the citizens in the country considered the constitution their constitution, before it was about the government considered boring relationship between queen and elected officials it had nothing to do with the citizens rights and what citizens were before the charter  With the charter the citizen expect to be consulted when the constitution goes through changes  Rules can create identities provinces university charters rules can affect how people pursue their preferences like example of electoral system furthermore rules create societies and communities  Group based approaches in the study of politics- Marxist approach- there is a different between Marxist and Marxist in politics- Marxist approaches in study of politics refers to nature of the organization I n the economy , in connection to the society and in connection to the state  Politics is the essentially the playing out of a conflict between labour and people who work, and capital people who hire workers  Karl Marx saw capitalism as a economic system that have 2 main groups workers who actually make things and capital people found the means of production  Marx argued that the inherit conflict in the capitalist economy – in order for a business owner to make money they need to charge more stuff for stuff they produce than what they pay for it including for labourers – conflict over wages in provinces  The profits of products go to wages for workers and when workers increases wages there is a conflict  Example price of an Ipad if it were produced in the united states it would cost 11,000 but since it was built china it will cost 700  People working in Asia are producing products relatively cheaper although the value of it is more and business owners take advantage by selling it for higher profits  Early days of industrialization This occurred when workers were dirt poor and business owners were filthy rich  From this Marxist approach this state where this avenue the conflict plays out that state sides with business over workers  The way in which the state pursues the interest of capital in the modern society is by providing welfare at home and military across  Welfare states keeps the people happy in this country and if anything happens over sea the military get involved  The state prevent civil unrest from emerging because it creates a welfare state  This way education is accessible health care , people from starving ,minimum stranded living standard living for poor people this will stop people from overthrowing the government and initiating protest  Groups are workers capital are business owner  Pluralist approach another group based approach focuses on how the government resolves the competing demand between groups  Pluralist approach - seized politics as Competition between groups but groups in the pluralists isn’t like the groups in Marxist approach it’s a group of groups not worried about labor and capital and have all sorts of groups with same like minded but in the pursuit of common things in interest  This competition is not seen to be equal  Some groups might have population support but not money and some groups have might money and not population support  These group gather their resources and compete with each other and politics manages these competition  Politics is a considered to be a competition between competing but equal interest groups from within that society  Cleavage theory-with in society there are certain groups racial groups ,gender differences regional education differences ect and from these differences in society emerge political parties and different advocacy groups arise  Cleavage theory is that the traditional party that we have in democratic country that these stem off from business group society and labour group society  Societies are most likely to become democratic and remain democratic if they have cross cutting cleavages  Countries will less likely become democratic if they have overlapping cleavages  Different incomes different religion, different levels of educations put us all in different groups  If you find yourself divided on your characteristics are dif
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