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POLB50Y3 (205)
Lecture 3

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Political Science
Christopher Cochrane

Week 3 Major approaches to study politics Different ways to study Canadian politics Notion of world views Part of it is assessment Interest is a large part the state of mind Critical approaches into studying politics How to study Canada? Institutional based approaches Group based approaches Society competition between different groups and how different groups cooperate Individual based approaches - study of individual human beings - rational choice theory - political psychology institutional approaches - rules or sets of ideas (governing relationship among individuals) - we are in the institution, we are in context where rules are governing relationship with each other, structure relationship between people - House of common are institutions - Electoral systems refers to different ways to counting results of vote - Preferential balance – rank order of candidate from highest to lowest and submit their balance in order to choose their candidate This is an example of electoral system Proportional electoral system – the seats are proportional to the popular vote The constituencies of parties win and the other part loses Change of rules and behavior Federalism – set of institutions governing the relationship between the governments (federal vs. provincial) It helps create provinces by claiming independence - it involves division - people identify themselves - provinces created around 150 years ago - provinces (artifacts of rules and institutions created by people to govern relationship between individual) - politics discussed in legal terms and it governs relationship between people - Alex Cairn argue that the Charter precipitated change in the Canadian culture - Rules create society and institutions and conventions Group based approaches Difference between Marxism and Marxist based approach (Marxist idea about the nature of the economy, politics is playing out of conflict in the economic system between the labour(worker) and capital (owner) over wages and profits People produce product that is worth more than how much they are paid Business owners are rich and workers are poor State sides business against workers O’Conor – state provide welfare at home and military system abroad Group (labour and capital owners) Pluralist approaches - sees politics as a competition between groups - - it sees the competition as equal - politics manage competition between groups Cleavage Theory – within society, there are groups of people There are all kind of differences in society There are groups of people that advocate Argument: society are most likely to become and remain democratic Cross cutting cleavage – each of the cleavages implicate particular groups of people Black and white Americans were equally affluent They are divided against the group of people They come from certain income Difference spread Reinforcing cleavages are bad to democracy Overlapping cleavage – society least likely to become democratic State based approaches - Presented as avenue in which groups contest with each other to get resources and benefit from the government - Deputy minister (grow the department) - People within state try to expand the state (group in its own right that interact with different groups) At the expense of workers – not in the interest of worker Pursue with interest of owners – support the owners decisions and the owner Individual approach focus
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