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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science

Lecture Two: Sovereignty January 27, 2011 Founding Myths and Confederation 1. Compact between English and French (Two Nations Theory) o Those who believe in this support an asymmetrical federalism o Bi-national view 2. Compact between Aboriginals, English, French (Three-Nations Theory) o Tri-national view believe that Aboriginals should have more of a presence in politics 3. Compact between provinces (Equal Provinces Theory) o Opposes asymmetrical federalism; wants equal power amongst the provinces Confederation 1.Borders of Canada in 1867 are much smaller 2.Most provinces didnt join during 1867; BC 1871; PEI 1873; MA 187018811912; AL + SK 1905; NL 1949; ON 18677489; QB 1912 3.AlbertaSaskatchewan were separated because there was worry about having a large province in the West 4.Provinces were given control over resources, except in the West. 5.Newfoundland joined during a time of financial crisis Problems 6.1867: planned to have a sea-to-sea country (Ruperts Land) 7.Needed a system of government to allow them to integrate new territories into the country 8.Unique historiespopulations made convergence difficult o QB and Atlantic Canada didnt want to be dominated by Ontario; Acted as a counter-weight to cause both of them to decide to join confederation Models of Government 9.Unitary system (British) o Absolute power held by one central government o Regional governments are subordinate to the central o In this system, regional governments are mostly for administration o Power is limited to the central level of government 10. Federal system (America) o No supreme level of government o Sovereignty is divided up, resulting in no government being subordinate to another o Power is divide between levels of government, but not necessarily equally
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