Heads of State
- In legal terms it’s the governor general and council that appoint the PM
- Provincial governments: LG appoint by governor general
- Royal prerogative: residual powers or authority of the Crown. Only the crown has the
right to call a war, sign a treaty, right to appoint PM, etc. Crown does all this because of
- Because the Queen is over in England it is the governor general that exercise the power
of the queen and LG in each province
- Reserve powers of governor general: powers held on reserve. On weekly basis they have
reserved power and includes the power to appoint the PM, etc. They can dispel the PM.
- Governor general can dissolve parliament and call election and that is their legal right
- 3 occasions in Canadian history when governor general was called upon to intervene:
exercised his/her power.
o Tupper: tupper was pm of Canada conservative. He lost election to Laurier and
wanted to make a lot of changes to the….. The GG intervened and said he cannot
intervene because he lost the election
o King byng dispute 1926: King lost the election and ruled with the party mostly
progressives. Progressive had 2 largest seat in house of commons. After 1925
election he lost seats. Mein won more seats than king but had minority of the seats
and Mien had more seats than anyone else. Scandal erupted and a vote of non-
confidence in King’s government. King said to have another election. Mein said
no that’s not right. GG asked Mien to form the government
o 2008 and conservative government of Harper
- Main incumbents of office and which one is head of state: EXAM
- GG were up until 1952 British Aristocrats. Since 1952 they have all been Canadians.
- GG has to sign all the legislation and legal documents that are approved by government
and ceremonial functions
- LG: same role. Sith off al legislation, have ceremonial role they perform and practise
especially in 19 century of disallowance and reservation. Disallowance is an act of
federal cabinet to render legislation ….
- Ground for disallowance and legislation: if provincial acts is illegal, if it is
unconstitutional, or it might infringe on another provinces right, provincial act may be in
conflict with a federal act.
- Grounds for disallowance and legislation: can rule it unconstitutional and might infringe
on other powers
- Might clash with a federal act - David Onley was a weatherman on cpp before
- Chosen more now for their ability to be in public
- Question: whether Canada should continue with a monarchy and if it is worth having.
There are groups in Canada that support both positions.
- Inconsistent with Canada’s independence, time for parliamentary republic because they
are elected rather than appointed, monarch represents British colonial rule, she is British
and she is not part of Canadian culture,
- Support of monarchy: the monarch has a historical role in protecting the rights and roles,
legitimizes the different groups like Aboriginals, legitimate role of the crown has to be to
protect the rights of minority, legitimization and support government because of that
ceremonial role: part of the whole legitimizing of the government, monarchy is free,
reinforces our links to the British commonwealth, leaves work that the PM does not do?,
- Queen is a symbol of national unity, getting rid of her would be a lot of work,
- Monarch is a constitutional monarchy. Monarch is subject to all the laws we have and she
is not above it. The crown does things only subject to the law. She reigns but does not
rule. Canadian crown only. She is the British queen in Britain, she is the Canadian queen
in Britian although she is the same. If the british