Lecture 11.docx

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Political Science
M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto

POLB80 Lecture 11: November 20 2012th  Agenda: IR Forum, Human Rights Continued, IPE IR Forum:  Israel and Gaza. Why it is hard for the international community put an end to this conflict?  It is hard to figure out the aggressor  Interventions are not cheap  Sovereignty plays an issue here. They would be violating sovereignty law if they intervene.  When can International Community Act?  When there is the will to do so,  Common interests: Geopolitical and Humanitarian.  some consensus  A notion of power.  Russia is a Syrian alliance and would not agree to intervene in Syria. UN trying to persuade Russia to agree to intervention.  Geopolitics: They are an oil producing country. There are cleavages in lines of Religion which is tied to regional rivalries. It is because of the relationship of NATO and Turkey. They have some issue on firing in Syria. There are disputes in Lebanon and Israel. (11-12:30) December 11 2012 Exam Review Human Rights Continued  Human Rights regime based on the universal idea of human rights.  Universal Declaration of Human Rights say cultural practices don’t triumph Universal Rights. You can differentiate the fundamental rights in the declaration. There’s a set document of human rights it is clear that these idea has developed over time. This is called Generation of rights.  Generation of rights:  1 . Focus on individuals- It’s a western bias. These are the civil and political rights that are known in the Western countries.  2 more advocated in the social bloc – economic and social rights. (ex. Rights of security) nd o 1sr an 2 is part of the cold war. Defining human rights was intertwined by the cold war. Both socialist and Western side, were saying there side was more fundamental. It’s fundamentally political defining human rights. It is not clear which side is more fundamental. rd  3 – group rights – The idea of rights don’t just inhere in individuals but they inhere in groups as well. Examples are the envision rights, right to peace and development. We have to protect humans from states. (Rights of women, children)  What do we do with this? This regime matter. Human rights regime is quite powerful. How the idea of this regime can diminish power of sovereignty. Human Rights Regime is set up as a common concern. It has triumph sovereignty over time.  Anarchy is nothing above the state.  There’s a theory that in the last 50 years, the human regime is a standard that is outside or above states. There might be a set of rule or standard. This changes anarchy.  The common concern is external.  Human Rights are more internal on how states treat their civilians.  There is a notion that it is not right for states to abuse their people.  Human Rights idea could be powerful.  This constrains sovereignty. If this were true, there would be human rights interventions to stop states from abusing their citizens. We often see humanitarian interventions too late though.  It could general economic sanctions, foreign aid. This notion of what is happening inside a state affects states outside of it.  Human rights are a powerful act over sovereignty by states Constitutions.  When you look at states writing their constitution, since 1948, over 100 states created a constitution. All of their constitutions are influenced by the human declaration of rights. This notion of human rights has shaped their identity.  Human rights regime has developed and protected  Four task: 1. Standard stetting – You have to define human rights. What should be protected? This role is played mostly by the states, UN, etc. 2. Monitoring – You need to find some way of deciding on protecting human rights and reporting events.  UN is not an effective monetary of human rights because the UN is a club of states. They help states be states and protect sovereignty.  The UN has monetary activities that do look into human rights but this is incredibly politicized wing of the United Nations.  What actors would be good then in monitoring? NGOs, Regional Organizations have been better in monitoring,
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