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POLB80 Class 3.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Matthew Hoffmann

POLB80 Class 3 Oct. 2 Midterm in two weeks LIBERALISM’S BIG POINTS 1. Importance of Domestic Systems – type of state matters Democratic peace thesis – just as war prone as other states, but they don’t fight with other democracies (150 year history) A realist would be uncomfortable with this because it’s a real strange coincidence (they believe anarchy matters, democracies should be in potentially conflict-ridden relationships with each other) Realist scholarships on dem. peace thesis says democracies haven’t fought.. YET Coincidence because of cold war, balance of power, democracies haven’t exisited very long Liberalists would says diff types of system equals diff behaviours 2. Collective security – removing the security dilemma -Irony to the video (shot in 1935)… league of nations failed when Nazism rose -Realism argues that you can’t get out o security dilemma, because it’s a true relation that anarchy = security dilemma… you simply exist within it -Liberalism says you can get out of security dilemma, if intl. organizations Any act of aggression is met by a response from the whole system How would this help get out of security dilemma? At the core of the security dilemma is interdependence, and so liberalism can remove that first feeling insecurity (if state A attacks, then whole system will back it up so it has nothing to worry about) “a threat to one is a threat to all” – the ethics of UN Reform But League of Nations failed…. Here are some conditions that need to be met:  Wars can be prevented by restraint of military action  Aggressors must be stopped  The aggressor is easy to identify  The aggressor is always wrong  Aggressors know that the intl. community will act against them Problems: - who was the aggressor? - Political commitment is tough to come by; conversely alliances mean more conflict (Ethiopia invaded by Italy, japan invades china.. LoN did nothing) - Structural problems, never had a perfect collective security arrangement (closest is UN in 1990s, Iraq invaded Kuwait) Is NATO a collective security organization? No, because it excludes everyone that isn’t NATO. It is better terms as collective defense or an alliance. Groups of countries that have agreed to protect each other for a particular threat (NATO was created during Cold War as defense against Warsaw Pact countries) 3. Cooperation under anarchy (neoliberals) – overcoming anarchy Realists say cooperation in anarchy is rare, fleeting and in interest of the more powerful actors (intl. orgs are tools of the most powerful state); relative gains are more important than mutual gains Liberalism says (relative v. absolute gains) intl. orgs can help with the mistrust that comes from the security dilemma; they can help achieve cooperation under anarchy; intl. orgs set up the conditions to help states see mutual interests and mutual gains and facilitate cooperation Liberalism says we don’t have trade wars; points to mutual interest orgs like WTO, GATT, etc. as
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