POLB80 Lecture Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Francis Wiafe- Amoako

POLB80H3 – INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 22/09/2011 -Talking about tutorials n shit - Thomas Hobbes (state of Nature and State of War) *Men by nature are equal: Men have same aspirations and desires, as well as the equal ability to obtain what they need *However, if both men desire same thing cannot both enjoy - they become enemies *Diffidence (mistrustful): this also translates to the efforts of trying to subdue or destroy the other in order to achieve ones end *He noted that an invader has nothing to fear than another man's power -What controls state behaviour is desire to have power to control - also what causes states to interact -Peloponnesian war - Athens>Melos----->Sparta>Athens -Macchiavelli: *power is relative *states and leaders should seek power first *something about the Medici family -Thomas Hobbes *generally man is good - eveyrone pursues what they need *resources not always enough - strength deciding factor *'The Leviathan' - sqeueezes out anarchic nature of our world -Power is an end in and of itself -Kenneth Waltz (The Origins of War in Neorealist Theory) *maintains assumptions of realism but views means and ends differently as causes/effects *Power: as an end in itself *Neorealism: Power as a useful means with risks of havign too little or too much *Neorealism: ultimate concern of states is not for power but for security(very important contribution to discussion) -Classical Realism - human nature conflicted, power==>end -Neorealism - Structure of the system (int'l), Power: means to an end -Classical realists do not define what power is for (power for the sake of power) - sought is the goal to dominate -Neoralists seek power for security -Waltz: * just because we innately find war does not mean we will always seek out war *notes that int'l outcomes cannot only be explained at the unit-level due to the inconsistencies *can also be explained at structural/systemic levels -cannot explain int'l structure on an individual level but can do it on overall level -Hitler changed status quo in europe -Assumptions of Neorealism: *states unitary actors trying to survive *Int'l system anarchic *system change result of variations in number of great powers *expected outcome is consquent on motivations both unit/systemic levels of politics *systes theory of int'l politics deals with forces at int'l and not on national level -Realism(Political realism) *school of thought in IR exploring relation between states via power *Power)military/economic) drives relation betwen states *realists see world as really is, not how it ought to be (idealists) *power predominates morals, ideals, social/economic life -Assumptions of realism *states most important actors for understanding IR *nature of int'l system anarchic -mixture of states behaviour is rational pursuit or self interest -Realist thinkers - Sun Tzu (the art of war) -Power: *ability to get other actor to do what it otherwise would not have done *potential to influence others -Concepts of political power *power as a goal: realists see power as inherent goal of man and state *power as influence: actors ability to excercise influence over others in international system *power as security: state that has shown resilience in protecting its security, sovereignty or strategic interests from challenges deemed powerful *power as capability: capacity to direct actions of other actors *recognizes presence of strength/will -Soft power - attempts to influence through means such as diplomacy, free markets and trades, dissemination of information and targeted cultural programming -Hard power - coercive tactic, usually adopted by stronger states - military, economic sanctions, assassinations -Estimating power (relative power) *relative military capabilities (realist view of power) *popular support *legitimacy of governments *GDP *GDP/capita *Population size -International system *set of relationships among world's states - structured to certain rules/patterns of interactions *states interact within set of long-established 'rules of the game' governing how they trust each other *these rules shape the International system -Some realities in international system *anarchy - lack of central government (supragovernment) that enforces rules within international system *in anarchy, states rely on self-help *states should pay attention, not to intentions of other states, but to own capabilities -Sovereignty: *right that governments have to do what it wants in own territory *all states of equal status -Security dilemma: *refers to situation in which actions taken by states to ensure own security threaten security of others *2 or more states could be drawn to conflict/war o
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