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Lecture 3

POLB80 Week 3.docx

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Political Science
Matthew Hoffmann

Cold War  Flow o No DIRECT superpower conflict  Why it’s a cold, not a hot, war  US and USSR never directly fought  They didn’t fight because nuclear deterrence  Threaten nuclear weapons  MAD o Mutually assured destruction  If one started fighting, the nuke would be used, therefor they would destroy each other o This is what gave the cold war stability; neither sie attacked because they were convinced that if they did, both sides would be destroyed. o For this to work; rational leaders, self preservation o Missile Defense  “Star Wars” program  this was a problem because the stability was decreased because one side was more vulnerable o Arms Control  Had to make sure each arms control treaty was equal so the stability was ensured  Crisis o 1948-  Berlin Blockade- USSR cut off all access to west berlin to try to force government out of there. o 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis  In response to US putting nukes in Turkey, USSR decided to put nukes in Cuba. US sets up naval blockade o Mutual deterrence at steak  Fear, lack of rationality  Proxy Fighting o Two Kinds o 1)Proxy v. Proxy  ally for soviet and ally for US fighting o 2)proxy vs. Superpower  Vietnam, Afghanistan  Rising and Falling Tensions o Early 60’s there was great tension o The late 60’s, early 70’s it was slowed down o The 80’s had high tension  The end of the cold war came to a large surprise to everyone (1989) End of the Cold War  One of the first times in history it’s the end of war without…war. You don’t have a conflict like this one without fighting. o Soviet Union died a couple years later o Fall of the Berlin wall was the key moment when the war was over o Inspired anti-communist movement across Europe o End of the Iron Curtain  USSR was an empire, essentially  Although they were their own countries, they were entirely controlled by the soviet union o 1968- Check republic had an uprising towards democracy. Soviet stopped it by moving in with tanks  Change in Soviet Behavior o Openings within the SU when Gorbachov came in to power in 1986  He had a very conscious strategy of removing SU from being an enemy of the US  Changed dynamic of the rivalry  Rivalry built on mistrust of the superpowers, that each saw each other as an enemy o When one side stops acting like a rival, the dynamics of the relationship was changed  US aggression and Military Spending o Arms race in the 1980’s and military spending put a lot of pressure on the SU, they had a lot of trouble keeping up. In stead of BTABTTSA, they decided to outspend them o US was ascending, USSR was descending o US chose not to be aggressive about the peace, they just let the USSR get out of it themselves o US won the war by almost any measure  Economic Collapse o SU on the edge of an EC in the 80’s o Couldn’t keep up with US spending, but they tried  Human Rights and Freedom Movements o Brave activists in the SU that put on internal pressure to change, to move towards democracy  Impact of Cold War Today o Change in type of Conflict  Terrorism  Civil war, ethnic conflict becomes more prevalent o US and USSR both supported oppressive regimes by Proxy to maintain the rivalry o Left a heavily armed world; the two superpowers armed everybody  Prominence of the UN o After WW2, UN was formed- a place where conflict can be worked out. o Formation of the Security Council to enforce edicts of the international community o However, UN didn’t do anything for 40 years. This is because  The Security Council couldn’t get a full vote because the USSR was part of it and each side tried to protect its own interest  Exception of this was the Korean War (USSR boycotted the Security Council that day, so they didn’t give their veto) o After 1989, there was more impact with the UN  Primacy of the US o US emerged as the sole superpower  SU went through an economic collapse, so the US emerged as the sole o No state rival for the US currently  US military spending still 5X any other country  Change in conflict towards a civil war  Expansion of International Agenda o World attention focused almost completely on the cold war during the cold war o Human rights, environment, etc became more mainstream in global politics  This sets us up for where we are today  Reinvigoration of multilateral organizations  Canada o Involvement e in Afghanistan  1979- Soviet Union invades Afghanistan (Proxy War)  1980- Guerilla invasion of Afghanistan funded by the US  eventually afghan resistance kick
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