Lecture 5: Liberalism

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Francis Wiafe- Amoako

POL B80 Lec 5 Oct 6, 2011 Liberalism (how it differs from realism) -Political and economic philosophy that espouses the values of individual political and economic liberty -ideas matter: political and economic values will determine issues of war and peace, no matter the structure of the int’l system -history is a progress: society transition from destroying each other development. however there are occasional setbacks -int’l anarchy does not rule out civility in interaction: societies have always found ways to cooperate by establishing norms -wars are obsolete ex. since 1945 we haven’t had major wars, peacekeeping (economically, militarily, trade) is much more effective and beneficial, civil war is rampant but interstate wars are rare -declining significance of nation-state (realists--->states are the only actors in int’l relations) ex. the U.S must usually consult the U.N before acting Immanuel Kant (perpetual peace) -the neutral state is a state of war -a pledge by each other’s neighbor is required - a state of peace must be established to be secure against hostilities ***Definitive articles of perpetual peace*** 1) the civil constitution of every state must be republican 2) the law of nations must be founded on a federation of states (establishment of cooperation, U.N, int’l organizations) 3) cosmopolitan right shall be limited to conditions of universal hospitality (also include commerce/ trade) -ppl can move from one place to another freely, encouraged trade Woodrow Wilson -what is the essence of war? is it just to secure peace or to establish a new balance of power? -if to secure peace who is to guarantee the new order? -calls for a community of power and an organized peace - peace is only possible among equals Michael Dyle -basis: the essence of the relationship b/w citizens and state -gov’s founded on respect for individual liberty exercise restraint and peaceful intentions Liberal Pacifism -family of principles and institutions recognizable by certain characteristics commitment to individual freedom through democratic representation rights of private property and equality of opportunity -Schumpeter: a relationship b/w demo and capitalism and by extension, war. when free trade prevails there are no gains from forcible expansion since raw materials and food are accessible to all Liberal Imperialism -Machiavelli’s argument -free republics are not only war prone but also they are fit for imperial expansion -imperial expansion results in the way liberty encourages increased pop’s and property which grow when citizens know their lives cant be confiscated Liberal int’lism 1) exercise peaceful restraint and a separate peace exists among them 2) int’l imprudence: peaceful restraints only seem to work in the liberal relations with each other. liberals have fought numerous wars with non-liberal states Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye -complex independence -multiple channels connect societies there also exist other trans-governmental and transnational channels -interstate relations consist of issues not arranged in a clear consistent hierarchy. thus military security doesn’t always dominate -when complex interdependence exists military force may not necessarily be used to resolve issues. ex. military force would not be used to resolve economic issues among members etc Reciprocity and identity -states preferences rather than state capabilities are the primary determinants of state behavior -favors plurality of actors in the int’l system - interaction b/w states goes beyond politics it also involves economics -instead of anarchy it sees more opportunities for cooperation -absolute gains could be made through cooperation and interdependence - peace can be achieved Liberal Institutionalism -liberal theorists believe that a rational actor is able to forgo short-term individual interests
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