Lecture 6: Democratic Peace

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Francis Wiafe- Amoako

POL B80 Lec 6 Oct 20, 2011 Democratic Peace -Kant’s 1st definitive article on perpetual peace -Attempt to extrapolate domestic politics unto the int’l system -foreign policy is also shaped by the society within which decision makers operate ex. bureaucracies, interest groups, military-industrial complex, public opinion, legislature -Bureaucracy: government agencies that effect decision making -defense department and the state department are key in foreign policy making -diplomats are very influential in foreign policy making -interagency tension occurs frequently ex military and CIAV. State department on the hostage crisis in 1979 -Interest Groups: coalition of people who share common interest and try to influence some political outcome. -provide financial support to decision makers and use the lobbying process to influence decisions on some set of issues ex Cuban Americans lobby to enforce US sanctions against Cuba -goals may not coincide with the national interest -Lobbying: the process of talking with legislators or officials to influence their decisions of issues -Military-Industrial Complex: an interlocking network of gov’t agencies, industrial corporations, research institutions, that work together to supply a nation’s military force -was in response to the growing importance of tech and logistics during the cold war -states and military officers are all beneficiaries of the military-industrial complex -Public Opinion: the range of views on foreign policy held by citizens of a state -more pronounced in democracies than authoritarian regimes -authoritarian states even use propaganda to boost public opinion ex. US humanitarian relief in Somalia -Legislature: influence foreign policy directly by approving budgets, regulating bureaucratic rules, creating new trade laws, immigration policy etc. -War Powers Act, enacted close tot he end of the Vietnam war requires the president to notify congress when troops are deployed for combat. President has 60 days to recall unless Congress approves it. -argues that democracies are generally peace compared to autocracies or dictatorship -a dyadic relationship which argues that democratic states do not fight each other -they require citizen support to go to war -trade with each other and therefore have very high interdependence -war is costly to political leaders Foreign Policies -the strategy gov’ts use to guide their actions in the int’l arena -goals outlining how countries would interact with others economically socially and militarily -stipulates the objectives leaders have decided to pursue in a relationship or situation -promotes state interest, national security ideological goals and prosperity -the process of foreign policy making is key in int’l relations Bush Doctrine -Foreign policy principles of Bush -US has the right to secure itself from states that harbor or give aid to terrorist groups -preventive war: US should depose from foreign regimes that are perceived to be a potential threat to the security of the US -spread of democracy around the world even in the middle east as a strategy for combating terrorism -willingness to pursue the US interest even in a unilateral way Decision Making -steering process in which adjustments are made as a result of the external world -Rational Model: decision makers set goals, evaluate the relative importance, and calculate the cost and benefits and choose the actions with high benefits and low cost -Clarification of goals -order of preference (importance) -alternatives/consequences of alternatives -O
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