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POLB80 Lec 6 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Matthew Hoffmann

INTERNATIONALSECURITY Threats and managing Threats • Violent threats • How states threaten each other and manage threats • Global security: violence distributed throughout the globe • Human threats: people being threatened • What is being protected o State – object of analysis, what needs protecting o From what threats? Other states  Different realms of international security will answer these questions differently o Protected by whom?  Realism: States themselves.  Liberalism: States in Conserve.  Marxism:  Constructivism: it depends on the relationship between actors and ideas. Traditional war and peace • Causes of war and condition of peace • Traditional war hasn’t gone away and learns about unconventional war and conflict. What is War? • Organized Political Violence between Representatives of States o Organized – not random violence, organized by the state. War fighting is a complex war endeavor. Organized military, fund it. Command and control across many levels and many different people. o War made states – require a ton of institutional capacity. States had to grow capacity; modern states came about because of the requirement for war. States became more complex to adapt to the needs of war. o War is not lawless endeavor.Anything does not go in war. o War is politics by other means o When states pursue/protect interest through violence. National security is about protecting interest and avoids threats. What Causes War? • Still numerous conflicts • Proximate causes o Individual level  Aggressive leaders that resort to war  Leaders making bad decisions  Human nature: species that create groups that seeks to dominate other groups  Misperceptions: leaders misunderstand what the other side is doing (mistakenly into war) [pursuit interest through violence] o State level  Type of state: use war as tool.Authoritarian states tend to be more violent. Democracy is just as likely to fight war as authoritarian.  Nationalism: identity politics.  Marxist: capital expansion is a system issue. Power transition.Another state rises with the falling of another.  Unstable distribution of power. Germany, Russian andAmerican power rising as Britain’s power was falling.  Insecurity potentially constant. Some states threaten other states and willing to pursuit interest violently. o System level Managing Insecurity – Realists • Balance of Power  Normative/Positive line.  Diplomatic strategy. • Cost-benefit analysis • Exist within security dilemma o Rules 1. Dominance constrained. Can’t have overall hegemony. 2. States try to increase power. 3. Negotiation is better than war. 4. War is better than losing power 5. Crucially, other
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