Threats and managing Threats
• Violent threats
• How states threaten each other and manage threats
• Global security: violence distributed throughout the globe
• Human threats: people being threatened
• What is being protected
o State – object of analysis, what needs protecting
o From what threats? Other states
Different realms of international security will answer these questions
o Protected by whom?
Realism: States themselves.
Liberalism: States in Conserve.
Constructivism: it depends on the relationship between actors and ideas.
Traditional war and peace
• Causes of war and condition of peace
• Traditional war hasn’t gone away and learns about unconventional war and conflict.
What is War?
• Organized Political Violence between Representatives of States
o Organized – not random violence, organized by the state. War fighting is a
complex war endeavor. Organized military, fund it. Command and control across
many levels and many different people.
o War made states – require a ton of institutional capacity. States had to grow
capacity; modern states came about because of the requirement for war. States
became more complex to adapt to the needs of war.
o War is not lawless endeavor.Anything does not go in war.
o War is politics by other means
o When states pursue/protect interest through violence. National security is about
protecting interest and avoids threats.
What Causes War?
• Still numerous conflicts
• Proximate causes
o Individual level
Aggressive leaders that resort to war
Leaders making bad decisions Human nature: species that create groups that seeks to dominate other
Misperceptions: leaders misunderstand what the other side is doing
(mistakenly into war) [pursuit interest through violence]
o State level
Type of state: use war as tool.Authoritarian states tend to be more violent.
Democracy is just as likely to fight war as authoritarian.
Nationalism: identity politics.
Marxist: capital expansion is a system issue. Power transition.Another
state rises with the falling of another.
Unstable distribution of power. Germany, Russian andAmerican power
rising as Britain’s power was falling.
Insecurity potentially constant. Some states threaten other states and
willing to pursuit interest violently.
o System level
Managing Insecurity – Realists
• Balance of Power
• Cost-benefit analysis
• Exist within security dilemma
1. Dominance constrained. Can’t have overall hegemony.
2. States try to increase power.
3. Negotiation is better than war.
4. War is better than losing power
5. Crucially, other