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Political Science
Jack Parkinson

POLB80Introduction to International RelationsProfessor Matthew HoffmanLecture 1September 11 2012Only date to remember is 1648 the signing of the treaty of Westphalia which was the birth of the modern stateCourse objective is to learn the larger historical context and the explanations that make random stories coherentShort Quiz on international relations theory before the midterm on Oct 16Thinking TheoreticallyWhy What caused this4 Questions for Every Theory1 Who are the important actors2 What is their nature3 What is the context4 How do they interactLecture 2IR ForumNonProliferation Treaty 1968 In the 60s countries began acquiring nuclear weapons countries then came together to prevent the international society from becoming unstable due to the destructive power of nukes nonnuclear powers pledge to not acquire nuclear weapons the nuclear powers said that they would work to disarm and provide technical assistance for civilian usesWhen you are within a country their laws apply to you citizen or not and if a citizen countries laws apply even out of the countryInternational law only applies to you if you consented to it ex through signingSecurity Council has the right to enforce International Law when it wantsIAEA International Atomic Energy Agency The IAEA is the worlds center of cooperation in the nuclear field It was set up in 1957 as the worlds Atoms for Peace organization within the United Nations family The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe secure and peaceful nuclear technologiesMultiple Historiesthere isnt a single answer how we got here the history of international relationsthe more common way is western civilization that tells the history in a more orderly fashions starting with Greek then the Roman Empire therefore very Eurocentric and linearCan also tell the history by going by war to war and that one can learn international relations by going through them in detail such as the failure of international law to contain them the development of hegemony ectThe importance of the creation of modern states makes this a valid way to study the topicWestern Domination through its expansion throughout the world is another way one can study international relationsThe development of sovereignty is the reason why we have this modern state system todayThe Evolution of SovereigntyThe key to sovereignty is the relationship between authority and territory Authority to make the rules over a defined territoryEvery inch of dry land is covered by statesIn the modern state federal government is the highest authority of that territory the monopoly of the legitimate use of force when it comes to making and enforcing rulesAuthority and territory matches 11A state governs within its territory nothing within it above itAuthority and Territory have not always matched one to oneIn ancient systems Feudal Europe the quintessential example Pope was in charge within that there were King Lords and Elites you would have multiple overlapping authoritiesPreWestphaliaCrazy Quilt The overlapping of authorities within Europe statesconcept or term that refers to a system whereby one geographic area is governed by multiple and overlapping authoritiesLiberalism and collective security multiple authorities that cooperateconstructivism and identity of states allowed for this type of authority to occurPeace of WestphaliaBirth of the concept of sovereigntyModern State system of 11 match between authority and territoryEnded the 30 years war that was mostly fought over religion Protestants vs Catholicsbut was also about power and conquestIt stated that within his territory the Prince gets to determine what the religion isFrom something this simple you get defined borders the notion of authority territory relationship and the idea of no intervention within other statesEvolution of SovereigntyAbsolute Sovereignty the authority of sovereignty back them was imbedded in an individual and not a nationQuestions such as what would happen if the sovereign died then what would happened afterwards would the slate be wiped clean Would agreements be kept18th century saw the notion of nationalism and moved away from the idea that power was imbedded in an individual instead it evolved into belonging to a nation and its peopleIt changed where the source of authority belonged to after developing ideas of popular sovereignty idea of democracy arose Battle between Absolute Sovereignty and Popular Sovereignty saw Revolutions and movements begin to shift that source of power to the peopleWorld War 1 was the last play of absolute power20th century saw sovereignty develop further international relations do not depend on sovereigntySupranational Sovereignty is where there is an entity above the state where it can challenge a states authority and make it change its policyWithout the 11 match we wouldnt have the relationship seen today between international
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