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POLB80 Wk 2 notes.docx

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Political Science
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Robin Ramcharan

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POLB80 Sept 23, 2010 Review of last lecture: IR as an academic disciple, began after the WWII, Prof. Carr was a British diplomat, helped negotiate the Treaty of Versailles that ended the WWI University of Aberystwth, Wales was the first chair in leading the study of IR Major questions  Actors/agents in international relations  Causes war  Globalization  Formation of inter-governmental institutions  IGOS & behaviours of states?  Causes of change; what causes change  Purpose of theorizing about IR  Role of ethics in IR o Is there such a thing as universal morality between states?  “scientific” theory of IR? o Do states behave according to norms? o And do they behave in a function of those or something else? Theories Systematic Theories  Realism  Liberalism  English Society  Political Economy  Critical approaches o Rooted in Marx’s theory Objectives Context: Cold War & Realism First attempts to systematize study of International politics Elements of realism Cold War What was it? Term ‘cold war’ coined by Walter Lippmann (18801974) - journalist, published a series of articles called ... - An arms race - Ideological expansion - Proxy wars  US vs. USSR (rivalry between two big powers)  Geopolitical rivalry – navies, USSR was looking a warm water dock  Two large land-based empires colliding When did it begin? - At the end of world war II - 1945 - 1947 - Ideological perspective of the conflict, The two powers had co-existed before WWII; - 1917 Bolshevik revolution – hostile to capitalist west - And yet, USA and USSR co-existed for a few decades - Allies during WWII to defeat Germany; Stalin joined with Allies to defeat Germany after realizing he could not negotiate a peace with them and after Hitler invaded his homeland - Had wartime agreements with each other, Yalta (Peace in Europe) and Potsdam (In Germany, about European peace and Peace in Asia-Pacific), agreed on post-war order But by 1947, a state of “cold war” existed High tensions: Why? What caused this rift? - Containment: Mr. X (George Kennan) formulated the policy of containment...which became... George F. Kennan - Director of the State Department’s Policy Planning Staff - Brains behind Containment policy - Foreign Affairs article: “The Sources of Soviet Conduct.” By Mr. “X” - Lead to US committed to “reacting” to Soviet power at “at a series of constantly shifting geographical and political points” - Reacted less in an ideological way, more in a way Germany was crucial to the Cold war; it started over Germany. Freezing the problem was the separation of Germany into East and West Containment: a form of classic balance of power approach to managing international affairs. Balance of Power origins: - European historical experience since 1648 o Once a power starts becoming stronger, other states collide and side to try to suppress this - Britain’s relationship vis continental Europe. o Didn’t bother much with European affairs. o Britain stepped in to try to suppress Napolean and formed an alliance with Russia in 1815 o Concert of Europe where states and of big powers had a meeting. th - 19 century system after 1815 Congress of Vienna o Count Metternich Pre Cold War Balance of power: trying to contain Germany; used to help explain both WW I & II Britain and Russia was competing to gain power in India, Asia, Turkey, etc. Germany challenged Britain’s power WWI 1914 – 191  Britain intervenes again in continental affairs; and by 1917 US joined the war  Britain diverted away from colonial empire: Germany (naval competition) WWII 1939 – 1945. Another total war: UK...& US  30+ million people  Civilian casualties (>50%)  Explaining WWII...? Other Causes of WWII  Rooted in evil nature of Hitler o Human nature explanations (Hobbes, Machiavelli)  Rooted in failure of League of Nations of 1919 (failure of functionalism/idealism)  Rooted in collective dissatisfaction (group explanations, frustration) o Germany came out of war as quite strong; that is why countries made them pay reparations for war and wouldn’t allow them have an army  Rooted in problems in the international system o Large scale change – emergence of the US and Japan o Security dilemma o Geo-political competition (power and influence) Causes of WWII Conventional View - Blame Hitler (Maurice Baumont) Revisionist views - Rooted in Versailles Treaty, war was inevitable (next class) John Maynard Keynes 1920s - A.J.P. Taylor: o Rooted in flawed peace o Hitler acting as any other European statesmen o Versailles was unjust and de-stabilizing o Germany would eventually re-assert itself  Great depression of 1930s,rise of Hitler/fascism in Europe - Functionalism fails to preserve peace o i.e. President Wilson’s League of Nations fails Inter-war functionalists were idealists! - Wishful thinking Raymond Aaron (France): Analysis of the origins of WWII points to the neglect of the element of power Explanations They must generate appropriate policy responses; policy solutions! -- Break – ‘Realist’ explanations Post-War Realism  Search for power is a defining element  Functionalist proposals were pure “idealism o First debate in IR: idealism vs. Realism  Intellectual origi
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