Use of Force.docx

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Political Science
Francis Wiafe- Amoako

Military Force and Terrorism - Conventional forces - Terrorism - Weapons of mass destruction - States and militaries Conventional forces - These are internationally acceptable military force that states use as a means of obtaining leverage over other states within the international system - They are usually violent in nature when states deploy the military and equipment - It is usually costly (finance and human lives) in nature and used as a last resort - It has its basis in the security dilemma - Main purpose is to obtain leverage - Leverage means which means that you spend signals to other states that I have something to strike you with. If a state does not have a military, any other state can attack the state. If you know it has a strong navy, army, etc, you would think twice so you use it as a leverage Purpose of conventional forces - To deter attack from other states - To compel other states to reverse a course of action - Also use for humanitarian assistance after a disaster - For peacekeeping - For surveillance for drug trafficking and repression of domestic dissent (people against government) - Types are the army, navy and air force - Pg. 197 for statistics Army - Land based military force of a nation - They are sometimes called infantry and are full time career soldiers - Their weapons include assault rifles, mines and machines guns as well as heavy artillery - Used to protect the territorial integrity of states - Sometimes used to occupy territories Counterinsurgency (COIN) - Is a military term for armed conflict against an insurgency - It seeks to protect the existing recognized authority - It also includes programs aimed at winning the hearts and minds of the population - It is the fusion of military and political strategy (current strategy in Afghanistan) Navy - It is a military force that controls passage of the sea ways and also to attack land near coastlines - Includes operation conducted by surface ships, amphibious ships, submarines, and seaborne aviation - Strategic role is to protect a state’s force beyond its shores - Marines are significant and specialized part of the navy. They battle in ships but fight on land - They navy has been instrumental in combating piracy in the Gulf of Aden, Suez Canal and the Indian ocean Air Force - That part of the military that conducts aerial warfare - Its function includes interception of other aircrafts, reconnaissance, and airlift of supplies, weapons, and troopers - Its machinery consists of fighters, bombers, helicopters, transport planes - Also responsible for operations of military space; i.e. intercontinental ballistic missiles, anti-aircraft artillery, surface to air missiles, and anti-ballistic missiles Logistics - Logistical support such as food, fuel, weapons and ammunition are significant part of the military - A sizeable part of the military are not combat troops but involved in moving logistics to the war zone Intelligence - Intelligence gathering relies on various means such as electronic monitoring of telephone lines and other communications, reports from embassies, and information in the open press - It helps the military in the decision making process - The intelligence process involves collection, analysis, processing, and dissemination of information - Currency of intelligence: intelligence is not an ordinary information but information that is more accurate and descriptive Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Drones - These are reusable, un-crewed vehicle capable of controlled, sustained, flight level and powered by a jet - Performs reconnaissance as well as attack missions Terrorism - This refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately - It is marked by extreme brutality - The intent is to create fear, and has tremendous psychological impact - It also serve to demoralize a civilian population in order to use the discontent as a leverage on national governments - Ex. Of terrorism act is the attack on the world trade center in 2001, subway bombings in Europe and the Mumbai attacks - Ex. Of terrorism groups are: who decides which group is a terrorist group? State sponsored terrorism - This refers to use of terrorist groups by states to achieve political aims - This groups is usually under the control of the state’s intelligence agency - Libya was accused of bombing Pan Am 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988 - United states has accused states such as Iran, Syria, Sudan, and Cuba as supporting international terrorism - India and Pakistan have also accused each other in the Kashmir dispute Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) - These are non-conventional weapons comprising nuclear, chemical and biological weapons - It can kill large number of humans and cause great damage to infrastructures - When deployed on ballistic missile it could be fired from one country to the other - Have more leverage than conventional weapons Nuclear weapons - An explosive device that derives its explosive force from nuclear reaction - Two types are fission (atomic bombs) weapons and fusion (thermonuclear bombs) weapons - The main components are Uranium and Plutonium - This weapon sets out a chain reaction of explosion, heat and radiation - A small nuclear device could destroy a whole city States with nuclear weapons - United States (1945) through the Manhattan Project with collaboration from UK and Canada. The only country that has used it on another country - Russia (1949) to create a balance of power during the Cold War - United Kingdom (1952) probably as a deterrent to Russia and also remaining relevant in Cold War Europe -
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