Terrorism Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Francis Wiafe- Amoako

Lecture 09 Terrorism and Globalization - What is terrorism - Why do people resort to terrorist acts - Effect of technology on terrorism - Challenges/concerns of terrorism 3 pillars of NPT - Non-proliferation: certain states have been recognized as nuclear weapon states. Nuclear weapon states are classified as permanent members of UN council. - States should not share nuclear technology that do not have the technology - States that do not have the technology should not think of getting them - 2 pillar: disarmament. Appeal to states to resolve their issues through diplomacy. rd - 3 pillar: peaceful use of nuclear technology. Important because states are trying to diversify in terms of energy. Without energy we can’t do anything. States try to get energy. One source of energy from water (build a huge dam) or get it through oil. Countries try to find many ways of doing that. One way that is cleaner is nuclear energy. You can use nuclear energy for nuclear isotopes for research and for energy. NPT makes room for it. Makes room for peaceful use of energy. Countries like Japan literally rely on nuclear technology for its energy supply. NPT has room for states to use nuclear energy to generate power. - In contemporary times, between countries in the advanced world with countries like Iran. Iran wants it for peaceful uses so they say but we suspect them. We have to open our eyes to see what Iran is up to. All those roles between Iran and US and other western countries is how can I have access to my rights to use of nuclear weapons? Key issues - Why do individuals or groups resort to acts of terrorism? - Is terrorism an example of political violence? - What is the challenges State governments face in responding to terrorism? - What is the effect of terrorism on international security? - Can terrorism create a healthy political change? Terrorism in Contemporary World - Attack on the world trade center and the pentagon in the US on Sept. 11 2001 - Attacks on tourist facilities in Bali, 2002 and 2005 - Attack on commuter trains in Madrid 2004 - Attack on a Russian middle school in Beslan, 2004 - Suicide bombings in London 2005 - Attack on Glasgow airport 2007 - Attack in Mumbai 2008 What is terrorism? - Use of violence or threat of violence against civilians by a non-state actor (an organized group) - Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents - Target: - Human target (cost-tolerance); to attack the will of the people to resist the demands that terrorists make - Physical target: to deprive the population of whatever pleasure the target may provide - The purpose is to achieve political objective (including changes in government policies or practises, changes in government leadership and structures, or quest for regional autonomy). Terrorism Techniques - Bombings, including car bombs - Kidnappings - Assaults and assassination - Takeovers of buildings, ships, planes and hostages - Suicide attacks Characteristics of terrorism - It is indiscriminate and could involve both targets and innocent civilians - It is marked by extreme brutality - The intent is to create fear, and has tremendous psychological impact - It also serve to demoralize a civilian population in order to use the discontent as a leverage on national governments - It is a weapon used by the weak Perspective of terrorism - War analogy: terrorism as an enemy to be defeated and eliminated in war - Criminal analogy: terrorism is a crime and need to be contained. The use of normal police techniques i
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