Lecture 4 – October 2 2012-10-02
- The type of state matters
Democratic Peace Theory – democracies do not fight each other but fight non-
This is strange for realism because they say it does not matter what state you are. The
world is still living in an anarchy system.
Realist say that democratic nations have not fought each other yet
Different domestic system means different state system
- Collective System
- 1935 – Started talking about collective system in the League of Nations
- Collective System failed for League of Nations and Nazi’s arise
- Anarchy = security dilemma
You cannot get out of this equation
Liberals say you can get out of it through international organizations (collective security
– any active aggression will cause the whole entire international society to react)
States worry about security because they feel uncertain and the feel scared
Ex. If everyone aids state A, state A won’t be afraid of state B.
The aggressor must be stopped always and should be easy to identify the aggressor
Aggressor must be wrong
Aggressor must know the international society will go against them
- Obstacles of collective system:
If the powerful states are the aggressors
Identifying the aggressor. Who is right?
Political commitment. You cannot have everyone on board this collective system
- Collective system is a theoretical way to get out of security dilemma
- Is NATO a collective Security Organization?
NATO is a Collective Defense (Alliance). It is a group of state that protect each other
from harm This does not take away security dilemma but instead live within the
NATO has about 15 countries – If anyone of them gets attack, NATO countries will help
the one that got attacked. If a country is not in NATO, NATO will not help
Alliance protect yourself in a security dilemma
- Realism – cooperation is a common and it’s rare. Competition is more and cooperation goes
away. - International Organizations help cooperation (liberal). Multiple interactions will help
- Realism – absolute gains can help cooperations
- Constructivism – This approach didn’t exist 25 years ago in IR.
- There are expectation on how we interact with each other
- Individual ideas who think about what is appropriate
These rules are constructed over time (1 core) st
Notion of a social fact – Things exist because they exist through a collection of collective
idea. (We all believe it exist)
Ex. Canada exists because we act as if it does exist. We follow it, elections, etc. Other
states act as if it exists too.
- Full of social facts of identity culture, that shape what world politics look like
- Constructivism is a social theory. We apply it to IR theories.
- World is socially constructed
- Important actors – states, IO’s, NGOs, Movements, corporations, anybody