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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 POLB80 .docx

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Political Science
G Cupchik

Lecture 2 (Recorded) Sept 18/12 Agenda  IR Forum  How did we get here I: The Evolution of Sovereignty  How did we get here II: The Cold War and Post Cold War Iran-Israel-US  Israel is concerned for it’s safety against Iran’s nuclear ambitions  Iran denies any nuclear weapon production  US is not interfering due to elections  Non Proliferation Treat o Treaty signed in 1968 o Pledged to:  Not acquire nuclear weapons  Work to disarm and provide technical assistance for civilian uses  UN security council o Has the right to reinforce international law  IAEA o Inspects Iran regularly to check for any possible nuclear weapon production sites HOW DID WE GET HERE?  Evolution of Sovereignty o Sovereignty is the underlying principle of the state system  The 20 Century and Today  At the end of the lecture today you should: o Grasp that there are multiple histories that can be told about the development of IR. o Understand the origins of the modern state system and the relationship between territory and authority o Understand how key events in the 20 Century shaped how world politics looks and functions today. MULTIPLE HISTORIES  There isn’t a single answer as to how we got here o There are different ways to tell the history of international relations  Western Civ o The most traditional story o Tells the development of IR in an orderly fashion o Greek City States  People like to talk about it because they believe it looks a lot like European states Lecture 2 (Recorded) Sept 18/12  Small independent states with similar interactions to latter day Europe  Gives way to the Roman Empire o Roman Empire  The beginning of larger scale organizations o Middle Ages  Feudalism and the break up of Rome setting the stage for modern day system o Modern Day System o Very orderly and linear study of IR that looks a lot like western civ o Quite Eurocentric  But because the states system really did come out of Europe in important ways it is not unimportant o In order to get away from that we need to think about the multiple ways that global politics can be organized  War to war o You can tell the history if IR by going from war to war o WWI  Balance of power and alliances and how that shaped international system and how WWI was the embodiment of that set of interactions o WWII  Development of nationalism  The effects of depression  Battle of major –ism’s  Failure of international law to contain conflict  COLD WAR o Nuclear war and bipolarity o Development of hegemony  You can tell the development of IR through war o Given the importance of war to the development of the modern nation state, going from war to war is very valid way of going through IR  Western Domination o Radical way of learning about IR  This viewpoint of IR today is a product of European expansion in the 16 and 17 century o Essentially you have an international system developed in Europe that has been forcibly exported throughout the world and that’s why we see the state system we have today  There are numerous ways to organize the history of world politics o Multiple storylines  Interpret the facts of these storylines and it interrelates and understand the stories of these developments Lecture 2 (Recorded) Sept 18/12 THE EVOLUTION OF SOVERIGNTY “Where modern states came from, how it’s evolved over time and what it might look like today”  What is Sovereignty o The relationship between authority and territory o Having authority to make the rules over a defined territory  Sovereignty underpins the entire international system o There is no on e in the world that is not a citizen of some state and every inch of dry land is covered by state o A state governs within it’s territory  A sovereign actor has central authority over or control over a specified territory  Have authority and territory always matched one to one? o No o Not in ancient empires nor in feudal Europe  In ancient empires; if there was a territory there would be multiple and overlapping authority  Feudal Europe was a quintessential example of this  Example: The Catholic Church o The pope was in charge and made the rules over all Christendom o Within that seemingly unitary system you had kings and lords and fifes  But none of these had a one-to-one match between territory and authority o There were multiple authority therefore there was no single or dominant ruler for a territory o A “Crazy Quilt” of authority relations  Do authority and territory match one to one today? o Over time we went from the “Crazy Quilt” to the one-to-one match  Reasons included; Centralization of authority to fight war, economic relationships at the time, religious war (Catholic vs Protestant in 16 and 17 centuries) PRE-WESTPHALIA  1648 o We highlight 1648 as the birth of the modern day state system because it was the birt
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