Class Notes (808,761)
Canada (493,382)
POLB80H3 (152)
G Cupchik (4)

Class 4 Lecture Notes POLB80.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
G Cupchik

Lecture 4 (Recorded) Oct 2/12 (Continuation of lecture 3 notes) COLLECTIVE SECURITY If State A gets attacked by State B then States C, D, E, F and G will come to the aid of State A, and if State A knows that everyone will come to its aid it will not be afraid of State B. Does it work? The League of Nations failed horribly as a result of collective Security. In order for collective security to work these conditions must be met: 1. Wars can be prevented by restraint of military action 2. Aggressors must be stopped 3. The aggressor is easy to identify 4. The aggressor is always wrong 5. Aggressors know that the international community will act against them Obstacles to collective security:  If the most powerful states in the system are the aggressors o This defies the first condition because if the most powerful states are the aggressors then it is very difficult to deter them with a collective response  Identifying the aggressor is not always easy (ex. WWI) o Historically Germany is blamed as the aggressor but WWI is an incredibly complex conflict and pinpointing the aggressor is difficult  Political commitment may be tough to come by o You cant necessarily get everyone on board to enforce collective security o This was the problem with the League of Nations; Italy invades Ethiopia, Japan invades China, and the League of Nations did NOTHING to organize an international response Collective security is THEORETICAL way of getting out of a security dilemma, it works in theory but in practice it has problems and difficulties. We have never had a perfect collective security arrangement; the closest we have come was the UN in the 1990s when Iraq invaded Kuwait. The UN acted to expel Iraq from Kuwait and Iraq was met with basically the entire international community to an act of aggression. THINKING CRITICALLY Is NATO a collective Security Organizations (yes/no)  YES o NATO perceived the Taliban as an act of aggression towards Afghanistan and tried to get rid of them o Afghanistan response o Key part of NATO: If a NATO country is attacked the rest of the NATO countries have to respond  The United States was attacked on 9/11 and they traced the aggression in some ways back to the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and NATO responded  NO o NATO was created to defend Western Europe against the communist hoards and Warsaw Pacts and the Soviet Union o Excludes everyone that is not a NATO (KEY DISTINCTION)  Therefore it is more of an alliance and collective defense than a collective security organization NATO is not there to defend all nations from a security dilemma. It is only concerned about the nations that are members of NATO. If, for example, Mexico invades Venezuela it is not NATO’s Lecture 4 (Recorded) Oct 2/12 business. But this has evolved in the Post-Cold War world because NATO is seeing ore conflicts as its business. The key distinction between collective security and alliance, in terms of our theories, is that an alliance is a way to live with the security dilemma and to protect yourself from the security dilemma, collective security is an attempt to remove the security dilemma. 3. Cooperation Under Anarchy (Neoliberals) a. Overcoming Anarchy i. Because of the existence of mutual interests ii. The relative vs. absolute gains argument  Absolute gains are enough to generate cooperation iii. International organizations can help with the mistrust that comes with the security dilemma  IGOs can help achieve cooperation under anarchy  IGOs provide a place where there is multiple interactions over time, for example, the UN is always having meetings and when you have these multiple interactions, this reduces the level of mistrust and allows cooperation to become a more important aspect world politics  IGOs can help shift that balance of competition and cooperation towards cooperation because they set up conditions for states to trust one another and to recognize and realize mutual interests and mutual gains  IGOs help us to understand what the absolute gains can be Lecture 4 (Recorded) Oct 2/12 CONSTRUCTIVISM *How social facts and norms work *They ask questions like, what’s appropriate behaviour? How do you know what appropriate behaviour is? *There are not only expectations that we have about identities but there are expectations how we interact (or how actors interact) *What we think of as “normal” isn’t natural or objective but is due to all the interactions we have over time that create what is appropriate Constant back and forth individual ideas and individual actions of what’s important that create ideas, rules, and norms about a larger group about what’s important which in turn shape what individual actors do Core of Constructivism 1. Feedback cycle – There are rules that we follow that are important to our identity and these rules are constructed over time by people taking individual actions 2. The Notion of a Social Fact (brute fact) – *The World is socially constructed” The things that exist because we COLLECTIVELY agree that they exist (it cannot be an individual thing) a. The biggest social fact constructivism deals with are STATE THEMSELVES, for example Canada exists because we collectively agree that it exists. We enact Canada everyday by following the government laws, by voting, etc. However it is also because other states act like Canada exists as well. MOST COMPLEX  It has a lot of moving parts  Complex doesn’t mean better it means it presents a very different vision of how the world works compared to liberalism and realism o Part of that is because constructivism isn’t actually a theory of international relations but it is a SOCIAL THEORY o Constructivism is all about how social facts work and appropriateness and norms o We APPLY constructivism to international relations whereas realism and liberalism are theories specifically designed to understand world politics Remember these three key questions: - Why is there a European Union? - Why did the international community sanction South Africa for apartheid in the 1980s? - Why don’t states use Chemical Weapons? ANSWER TO THE 4 QUESTIONS 1. Who are the important actors? a. States, NGOs, movements, corporations, etc. b. Basically anybody can be an important actor in constructivism because all of these actors are participating in constructing the world politics, in constructing those ideas about what’s appropriate, what actors are to do, and what are expected or “normal” appropriate actions i. They all participate in making the states real and making interactions the way that they are so they are all important actors Lecture 4 (Recorded) Oct 2/12 2. What is their nature? a. MALLEABLE; interests and identities of actors in world politics can change meaning the interests and identities are context-dependent i. Your behaviours, interests, identities are context dependent  You can have multiple interests based on those different identities and it also depends on the context that you’re in  This is what translates constructivism into world politics o For example, if states are scared is it because states have to be scared? Or is it something about states that makes them scared? No; it is because the context that they are in is scary b. Realists and liberalists talk about states as having pretty set interests; they both want power and security but constructivists nature is malleable c. Constructivists argue that
More Less

Related notes for POLB80H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.