POLB81 Lecture 10.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto

POLB81 – Lecture 10 – March 18 2013 April 11 11-12:30 MW160 Exam Review Session th Final Exam April 17 2-5pm, GYM  Global governance Forum o This teen is suing the state of Alaska because climate change threatens his home. By Sarah Laskow (www.grist.org) o This is an instance of:  Transnationalism: The Oregon’s Our Children’s Trust is an NGO working on climate change to push the government to do something. But this NGO is not transnational because the sub-national government is being sued. The question is whether it’s linked to other international organizations. It’s just very different than the transnationalism we use to talk about which is global NGO influencing global institutions.  Global and Local Connection – (Theme) Here you have a very local response to the most global of issue.  What kind of problem climate change is?  Last Global Issue of Term: Climate Change o We’re adding a complicated factor. We’re adding in the element of natural environment which is natural environmental science. o Environmental science is sophisticated and it doesn’t tell us what to do in climate change. It adds the uncertainty in climate change. o There are multiple ways that different actors can see climate change in different ways.  Global Climate Change – Nature and Scope o Science Scope: They all interconnect in some way.  Greenhouse Effect – the picture on the slide. Solar radiation comes from the sun and hits the earth that warms up the air. The radiation hits the atmosphere. Most of this radiation bounces off the planet but some of this radiation is absorbed in the atmosphere much like greenhouse holds in heat. Our atmosphere keeps the earth warm which is a very good thing. It keeps the earth warmer such that we wouldn’t be a cold dead planet. Greenhouse effect keeps the life on Earth.  Greenhouse Gases – Six main gases: Water Vapor, Carbon dioxide co2, CH4 Methane, CFCs, Nitrous Oxide. These gases absorb info-red radiation. Water vapor CO2 and CH4 are natural occurring. CFCs/HFC, and nitrous oxide are entirely human made.  What is global warming? Since the industrial revolution concentration of the human made gases like Methane are burnt which makes carbon dioxide. We mostly got rid of CFC/HFCs. Industrial Revolution Humanity brings these gases to our planet which has increased. Everything has to do with do fossil fuels. We already experienced .7 degrees of warming. Climate scientist tie human induce human made gases to a warming atmosphere. These are the effects of global warming.  Climate Change transform seasons. (Global Warming) Northern Europe can experience an ice age. The Guelph stream’s warm water hits the coast of England which keeps Northern Europe much warmer. Scientist is worried that the Guelph stream going to shut down. Melting of glacier that flows into the Guelph stream would alter the Guelph stream making the Northern Europe cold.  Rapid change in climate change, broad changes, Global warming doesn’t mean that it’s going to get warmer. We had really big storms this last winter because you expect larger storms sometimes unusual times. Oceans are getting more acidic.  Global Warming- It’s the result of concentration which could come from natural causes.  Climate change- The effects on what we’re feeling.  There are uncertainties. It’s getting bad very quickly. 90 percent of climate scientist adhere that we have anti-phonetic climate change that is occurring.  Since 2007, People saying climate change is happening faster and the actual observation. The climate is that we tend to be on the high side of these predictions. Our knowledge has increased significantly and it’s not getting better.  2011, Natural research in the US looked at what we could expect: 2 to 11 degrees Fahrenheit are already observed. 2012, 6 degrees of warming.  Political consensus: we should hold climate change to 2 degree Celsius that way we can avoid the worst impacts of climate change. It’s bad and it’s getting worst. There are inherent uncertainties that we don’t know.  The graph on the slide says that the climate change was going down but then there’s a spike on climate change.  Un-inherent certainties: There are things that we don’t know. Climate change is complex. There are things that we probably would never know for sure like Climate sensitivity. There is uncertainty and variability on how much warming you will get because of increase green house gases. We don’t know how much carbon dioxide we emit that will change climate change. We also have inherent uncertainties on the impacts. We don’t know how temperature relates to impacts. We don’t know what a 2 degree world would look like. It could be really bad or good.  Variability – The impacts of climate change will be felt differently (some places will get warmer or colder).  Climate denial climate skeptism: Climate change is not happening or as it’s not as serious as the scientist as it is. Some reject the science or skeptical of it.  Climate sensitivity - How much warming we get from different concentration of greenhouse gases. Question: How much resource should we spend to solve climate change?  Political Scope: What kind of a problem is this? What’s the nature? There is no single nature to this problem. Climate change is much more complex because there’s no single way of understanding this problem.  Context: international organizations can’t address this problem because it’s too difficult to solve.  What kind of problem is Climate Change? o Is it a problem of the r
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