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POL208Y1 Lecture #3 Liberalism and Constructivism.docx
POL208Y1 Lecture #3 Liberalism and Constructivism.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Lilach Gilady

POL208Y1 – Lecture #3 01/10/2012  End of liberalism, and going through Marxism and constructivism.  The Bush Doctrine/The Obama Doctrine (?), test cases for how you can judge for whether something is realist or liberal.  What aspects of these doctrines come from the different theories?  The Liberal Solution o State of nature – not as bleak (John Locke) o Domestic analogy: institutions solve the problem of anarchy. o The quality of institutions affect the stability of the solution. Can solve problems and get states out of dilemmas. o Domestic structures matter; institutions matter. o Rights exist independent of power. (life, liberty, poverty). o Progress is possible; optimism is higher, history is on a trajectory, there is potential for progress, potential for learning, we can be better in the future.  Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) o Contributed a lot to philosophy. o On the perpetual peace (short essay), eccentric man, never experienced war, lived in the same place his entire life. o Suggests a trajectory, there is room for progress. o Kant rejects the separation between the moral imperative and the political realm (Machiavelli). You cannot separate the two and if you do… o Following self interest will lead to a “perpetual peace in the vast grave that swallows both the atrocities and their perpetrators.” o There is unavoidable historical progress towards would federation – but we have the obligation as rational human beings to speed the process. o Some kind of a way to2 get to the end game today, o To reach peace: “the civil constitution of every state should be republican.” o Different types of domestic regimes lead to different behaviour in international relations. o A world federation should be established. We’ll have democracy within all states, ensure that there is cooperation. o Economic and social interaction across borders should be encouraged. o Modern reading of the “Kantian Peace” democracy, trade, international organizations.  Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776) o Considered to be first great text of modern economics. o Question of war, started to write this book because he was interested in how to solve issue of war and peace. o Economics and Peace  Laissez-faireL minimal governmental intervention in economic affairs.  Humans are rational profit maximizers. They want to have as much profit as possible, are we going to pick the option that will give us the best profit possible.  Trade generates benefits.  War will erode these benefits – ergo…  Individuals that trade would not want war, against your interests.  Encourage people to trade, the more people that trade will work against war. Trade creates and interest in peace.  More trade leads to less war.  The Wilsonian Moment (January 8, 1919) o Conditions for which the US and its allies to end the war. Puts forward his vision of how the world should look like after the war, and what are the conditions of the war? What are we fighting for? o 14 points  Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas; the removal of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions.  Self determination; “a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations cocnerened must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined”  Collective security; “a general association of nations must be formed under specific convenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike”  Neo Liberalism o Robert Keohane o A new, more scientific liberalism, newer, more comfortable with. Not assumptions about human nature, something that is more modern. o Can we think of structural conditions that would induce cooperation – without relying on assumptions regarding human nature, morality, or natural rights? o Institutions! Analyze the impact of institutions and how their behaviour affect individuals. o Institutional liberalism, emphasizes the roll of institutions.  Absolutive vs. Relative Gains o 1 Distribution:  Actor A: 5 units nd  Actor B: 5 units  2 distribution: Actor a: 4 units actor B: 3 units  3 distribution: actor a: 6 units actors b: 7 units  Its about absolute gains.  Most actors are sensitive to absolute gains, want to have more, be better not necessarily more than our neighbour. Structure or human nature?  Liberalism Summary o Actors are rational an
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