POL208Y1 – Lecture #3
End of liberalism, and going through Marxism and constructivism.
The Bush Doctrine/The Obama Doctrine (?), test cases for how you can judge for
whether something is realist or liberal.
What aspects of these doctrines come from the different theories?
The Liberal Solution
o State of nature – not as bleak (John Locke)
o Domestic analogy: institutions solve the problem of anarchy.
o The quality of institutions affect the stability of the solution. Can solve problems
and get states out of dilemmas.
o Domestic structures matter; institutions matter.
o Rights exist independent of power. (life, liberty, poverty).
o Progress is possible; optimism is higher, history is on a trajectory, there is
potential for progress, potential for learning, we can be better in the future.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
o Contributed a lot to philosophy.
o On the perpetual peace (short essay), eccentric man, never experienced war, lived
in the same place his entire life.
o Suggests a trajectory, there is room for progress.
o Kant rejects the separation between the moral imperative and the political
realm (Machiavelli). You cannot separate the two and if you do…
o Following self interest will lead to a “perpetual peace in the vast grave that
swallows both the atrocities and their perpetrators.”
o There is unavoidable historical progress towards would federation – but we have
the obligation as rational human beings to speed the process.
o Some kind of a way to2 get to the end game today,
o To reach peace: “the civil constitution of every state should be republican.”
o Different types of domestic regimes lead to different behaviour in international
o A world federation should be established. We’ll have democracy within all states,
ensure that there is cooperation.
o Economic and social interaction across borders should be encouraged.
o Modern reading of the “Kantian Peace” democracy, trade, international
Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776)
o Considered to be first great text of modern economics.
o Question of war, started to write this book because he was interested in how to
solve issue of war and peace.
o Economics and Peace
Laissez-faireL minimal governmental intervention in economic affairs.
Humans are rational profit maximizers. They want to have as much profit
as possible, are we going to pick the option that will give us the best profit
Trade generates benefits. War will erode these benefits – ergo…
Individuals that trade would not want war, against your interests.
Encourage people to trade, the more people that trade will work against
war. Trade creates and interest in peace.
More trade leads to less war.
The Wilsonian Moment (January 8, 1919)
o Conditions for which the US and its allies to end the war. Puts forward his vision
of how the world should look like after the war, and what are the conditions of the
war? What are we fighting for?
o 14 points
Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas; the removal of all
economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions.
Self determination; “a strict observance of the principle that in
determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the
populations cocnerened must have equal weight with the equitable claims
of the government whose title is to be determined”
Collective security; “a general association of nations must be formed
under specific convenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees
of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states
o Robert Keohane
o A new, more scientific liberalism, newer, more comfortable with. Not
assumptions about human nature, something that is more modern.
o Can we think of structural conditions that would induce cooperation – without
relying on assumptions regarding human nature, morality, or natural rights?
o Institutions! Analyze the impact of institutions and how their behaviour affect
o Institutional liberalism, emphasizes the roll of institutions.
Absolutive vs. Relative Gains
o 1 Distribution:
Actor A: 5 units
nd Actor B: 5 units
2 distribution: Actor a: 4 units actor B: 3 units
3 distribution: actor a: 6 units actors b: 7 units
Its about absolute gains.
Most actors are sensitive to absolute gains, want to have more, be better not necessarily
more than our neighbour. Structure or human nature?
o Actors are rational an