POLB81- Lecture 7.docx

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Political Science
M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto

POLB81 – Lecture 7 – February 25 2013. Dafur video: There’s an ethnic cleansing problem in Darfur. UN failed to solve this problem because they did not have the consent of the P5 to intervene in Darfur. China was an alliance with Sudan. NGO’s influenced the US to make an attempt to do something on the Darfur genocide. The conflict spreads to neighbouring country Chad. The conflict or the problems are continued until today. It’s gotten better but the conflict itself is not finish. Governing through the UN  International community has a set of body of institutions to solve genocide mostly centralized in the United Nations.  The United Nations has not been successful in governing genocide or stopping and preventing it, if this means success.  The United Nations is a place to start conventional wisdom of what tools we have to stop these problems.  UN was set up in 1948 to preserve the peace after WWII and was set up by the victorious power of WWII.  The creation of the UN was a second attempt to preserve peace.  The designers of the UN tried to learn from the problems of the League of Nations. The designers wanted to keep the good parts of the League of Nations.  UN is a place where states would come together to hash out international conflict, o deal with conflict with borders, o wanted to deal the flaws of the league of nations which are:  unanimity - unanimous consent  No armed forces  US not a member- lack of Great power participation  lack of enforcement,  The designers of the UN needed an international body to solve these problems. o Their solution: Dual structure of  the UN general Assembly,  the UN security Council o General Assembly is where all countries can come and bring issues to the international community o Security Council was made to have some enforcement powers, to uphold peace and stability o The UN is an universal organization that deals international issues o To have the great power to sign on a vote, you have to give privileges to the great power. Therefore, UN has given veto power to the P5 in the Security Council. Therefore, attack on one is an attack on all if P5 agrees to it.  IUN was more effective than League of Nations but P5 and the compromise to get the great powers involve is what leads to the problems of international conflict.  When North Korea invaded South Korea, this was the first time the UN authorized the use of force to stop invasion. The Soviet Union was boycotting the UN meeting when Korean War was going on.  The rivalry in Darfur with China and US really hampered to do something in Darfur.  UN does other things too. Their agenda expanded and put global health, etc. in their agenda.  The UN deals with most of the issues that cut cross borders. Governing Modern Conflict In order to govern modern conflict you need autonomy, will and capacity.  Autonomy: o UN was set up to protect and enhance the sovereignty of states. o Governing global issues in many cases requires consent (sometimes), cooperation, and weakening often. o Governing global issues asking states to make rules. UN asks them set rules that don’t protect state sovereignty (usually). o The UN is a Club of state. If we are criticizing the state members, we criticize the UN. UN in some way is the member states. o UN has some autonomy but by law the UN doesn’t have any autonomy. o UN has some autonomy through  Diversity of members  Retreat of restate - because of globalization the ability of state to govern has been restricted, State competence and capacity to deal with global issues has limits. Actors like the UN to have some autonomy from their members  There are 3UN’s- There’s three UN’s which are  Member states - UN isn’t anything for states to talk, and cooperate. It’s just a state and what the UN is.  Secretariats/ Civil service - UN is an organization. It’s a buracracy even though that the organization is controlled by member state. Within develop ways, they in which they interact, develop issues, and understand how the UN influences policies. If you have an organization, they are part of the UN and can develop what the UN should be doing.  Informal networks that develop around the UN – (Civil Society) They are not part of the UN but connected to the UN. These network forms around the UN that deal with a variety of issues that the UN is trying to solve too. They participate in governing that is sponsored by the UN. This is third source of autonomy. They alter what the UN does. Ex. NGO’s, corporations, pushes the UN to do things. They interact with the civil service and the member states and try to tell them what to do or alter what the UN does. o We can say UN
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