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POLB81 - Tutorial 2 Notes

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Political Science
Wiafe- Amaoko

POLB81 GLOBAL ISSUES AND GOVERNANCE Part I: International Political Economy (IPE) Week 2: International Trade and Globalization (Jan 25) Readings: Krasner’s “State Power and the Structure of International Trade”; Rodrik’s “How Far Will International Economic Integration Go?” *Important Notes - Need to remember names of authors. Midterm exam will ask what certain authors argued. - Krasner says that large states with bigger economy are actually unwilling for open trade - Krasner’s ideas are all theoretical because we don’t have many small developed states nor few large, unevenly developed – we have a mix Krasner’s context (needs rearranging): 1970s international economic flux; ppl said American hegemony is on decline. Rmb: if u take hegemony, you presumably take away openness of international economy IPE - relationship between states (motive-organizations) and markets(expanding force that doesn’t believe in borders; wants to break borders); between politics and economics 3 traditional approaches to IPE 1. Liberalism – should be separate; are they being descriptive or normative (what ought to be?); TA suggested that liberals are about stripping economics and politics – unnatural for gov’t to be involved in econ. Politics – war, etc. economics – pursuit of self-interest and profit 2. Economic Nationalism – economics is subordinate to politics; economics should be tool of the state ex. Used to develop military power. Econ for state interest, not individual driving economic interests (like liberals) but state 3. Marxism /Mercantilism– how the two classes interact with each other esp. B exploits P (domestic). Internationally, the economic relations between states. Marxist – wanted free trade b/c brings revolution closer. more recent scholars talked about dependency theory (big countries dependent on developed countries to make raw materials. Their position in this international political economy, doesn’t help them develop – keeps them underdeveloped. They become exploited). Marxists believe underdeveloped countries should be self-reliant so they don’t have to depend on the powerful states and remain in the underdeveloped category. This Week’s Readings applies one of the most important approaches - Krasner’s goal/central question  international trade structure  two extreme/ideal types: o complete openness – tariffs decrease (higher tariffs, greater costs to trade), increased national income from trade, declining regional trading laws – bigger trades and across distances and more interaction o autarky – refers to protectionism and isolated/closed economy, self-reliant.  Trying to explain why some periods in history where states are characterized by more open International Trade Structure and sometimes more closed ITS.  How would different approaches answer this question? o Liberalists: explain structure of ITS by expansive trade, economics begins to trump politics. Wouldn’t really be able to explain closed-ness or variation b/c market is always expanding for them and becoming more open and pushing the state aside b/c peoples w
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