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POLB90- Lecture #2 .docx

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Political Science
Judith Teichman

POLB90- Lecture #2 September 10, 2013 Overview of Issues  Global Context of Global South  Meaning of Development  Problems faced by GS are political (man made) Other Meanings of Globalization  Economic Globalization the elimination of economic borders and the increase in international exchange (trade, investment). o Investment part is more important more than trade.  Interchange Political and cultural ideas, political, financial institutions o IDEAS- Human Rights What Changes Occurred? ….To create Globalization 1. The breakup of the Soviet Block and the Demise of Communism a. No market capital system b. State doesn’t run the economy c. Part of electoral democracy 2. The emergence of trading blocks a. NAFTA b. EU – monetary union with common institution c. ASEAN 3. Mid 1970’s: Decline of US economic power a. Rise of Germany and Japan b. US having 50% of GWP 4. New Technology a. Development in such a ways in which you can produce goods in various geographic locations i. Consumer items assembled in poor countries. Wasn’t so before, it would all be in one place. 5. RISE of the BRICS a. Dynamism of the economies (BRIC) b. Economy is huge, and they have impacts. Want change in Economic Order Main Actors  Multinational Corporations: more powerful than many GS governments o In wealth and ability to invest. Lobby (make demands) of industrialized countries, Bretton Woods institutions.  Private Banks  Governments in Global North Countries  Opening up markets for market liberalization  Governments of GN pushing for liberalization and integration as well as GS. Some GS countries became more Catholic than the Pope.  Multilateral Lending Institutions  World Bank  IMF  LOANS on the ground of carrying out certain policies  Process that is driven by the power of ideas interest behind them, but ideas of market reform were the important driver  The World Trade Organization  Subject to heavy lobbying by MNCs  Governments and Blocks of Global South Countries (BRICS, Group of 77, ALBA).  Civil society and trade union organizations  Operate within countries. A lot of the policies and changes that occurred were coming from outside the country.  Have partners in developed countries. Corporations move for cheap labour and less regulation. There is a tension b/w interest GN worker. Alliances are harder to build, but they do exist.  Both recognize that the political response needs to be Global Division’s w/I the Global South  Success of Asian NICs (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong) o Success due to state intervention became part of the rhetoric used to justify state regulation o Less successful, second-string NICs: (Indonesia, Malaysia)  Brazil and Mexico  Mexico has had a number of economic crises, low standard of lie, etc.  By early 90’s it carried out a lot of reforms o China and India- Great Success stories  High economic growth rates  Poverty reduction  Use of market liberalization is the cause of success questionable? Reasons of true success are due to state led development o The “Fourth” World  UN Classification  Most Sub Saharan African countries+ Haiti  Lowest socioeconomic indicators, capita, illiteracy, child mortality, constant political upheaval and civil war.  Lots of statistical show a strong ‘correlation’ between an abundance of natural resources and slower rates of economic growth  Resources are often associated with the reinforcement of authoritarian regimes and states. One scholar calculated that a 1% increase in a states dependence on natural resource resulted in an 8% increase in the probability of auth
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