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POLB90 Lectures 1- 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Judith Teichman

Lecture notes POLB90 LECTURE 1 Tuesday, September 3, 2013 The Global south  Countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America Pay attention to generalizations when comparing these countries especially politically.  The course focuses on the international strain’s and pressures that affect the political and social conditions of the global south. - Historically these countries have borne the burden of pressures by international actors.  There are international pressures and internal domestic play that intertwine which affect the political conditions. Topics Include: Intellectual attempts to explain the "problems" of the global south, - No real defined "problems" - Mostly defined by western thinkers - The root problem lies deep within the structure of the global economy.  Western ideas of what development means have guided policy and foreign aid. - Ideas shape the way people think about reality, and shape what sort of solutions they construct. The impact of the West: How have these shaped politics and social political outcomes in the global south? - The expansion of trade - Colonial rule: had an extreme outcome and created circumstances and conditions that fed in to later political situations Debt crisis of the 80s: - Creation of the World trade Organization Effects of Multinational Corporations  Quite notorious for "pushing" countries around.  looking at the way the global south "fights" back against large companies  What are the impediments that stop workers from resisting against working in these conditions? Neoliberal thought: - National growth stems from vested interests What countries? Developing areas, Underdeveloped countries, third world, Global south. - contested term The term underdevelopment was meant that the constraints of the world economy were so severe. Developing: there is some development Third world: was one that arose from the countries themselves: during the cold war, they chose to remain neutral. The non- allying countries referred to themselves as the "third word" - Group f 77  Concerned with poverty, health care, education. Sees itself as a unit mitigating US power. - They think of themselves of having common interest: Common interests:  Common history: European Domination  Economy: economies today are widely divergent o Much of the 20th century they were exports of primary products. Lecture notes POLB90 o The dependence of these countries on western nations Common Challenges: - Social, political, economic - These electoral democracies have very authoritarian qualities The MDG's: Represent an international consensus on what problems of the global south needed to be addressed. - The original MDG's did not include anything on inequality. - Inequality contributes to political violence - contributes to criminal violence -> contributes to political instability If we are talking about improving human life, what is the government’s role? Where does a government get resources to do this? If countries are constrained in their choices, where do they get the resources? In situations where you have huge differences in distribution, you need the involvement of the government -> re-distribution. LECTURE 2 Tuesday, September 10, 2013 Other meanings of globalization? - Media - Cultural and political ideas - Political Institutions - Economic - Ideas, very important The fact that the world sees the problems of the global south as homogeneous.  Most of the problems in global south are political. With regards to the distributions of power internationally or domestically within these countries. The Global Context Economic globalization: The eliminations of economic borders and the increase in international exchange (trade, investment). - Investment > trade What changes have occurred? 1. The breakup of the Soviet Union and the demise of communism 2. The emergence of trading blocs (NAFTA, EU) 3. The decline of U.S Economic power  Rise of Germany, Japan 4. New technology  The development of technology in such a way that you could produce goods across a variety of geographical areas - export processing zones (poor countries- cheap labour) 5. Rise of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) dynamism of their economies  Because their economies have been growing so rapidly, they are now important. "You have to listen to them". Ex. Having their own formal organizations The Main Actors:  MNCs: more powerful than many Global south governments. Lobby on the government. Of industrial countries and the world banks.  Gov. Of the global north. Have been important forces pressing for market liberalization - Gov. Of global south countries have been very enthusiastic towards this as well.  Multilateral lending institutions Lecture notes POLB90  World bank  International Monetary Fund  The World Trade Organization o is subject to the demands of the developed countries o Heavily lobbied by MNC's o Governments and Blocks of Global south Countries (E.g. BRICS, Group of 77, ALBA) - Civil society, Trade union organizations. - Very often have partners in dev. Countries. - If they are not international organizations they work very closely with IO... Divisions within the Global South  Success of Asian NICS(South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong)- High economic growth rates and poverty reduction  Due to state led development  Less successful, second strings NIC: (Indonesia Malaysia) o {Brazil, Mexico} Mexico was only a success until the 90's. o China and India- Success is owed to market liberalization? o Had to do with state led development NOT market liberalization The Fourth World  UN Classification  Most Sub Saharan African countries  Lowest Socio- Economic indicators Oil producers: You would think that if a country has a ton of oil that the country would get lots of revenue to invest... But in actual fact the opposite tends to happen Countries with lots of petroleum wealth end up in a mess. - Ex. Mexico, Nigeria Meanings of Development. From Growth in Income, to sustainable development, to the human development index.  Heavily contested  GNP - Gross national product per capita: the total value of all the goods and services produced by a country in a year, including income from abroad, divided by the population.  This concept became roundly criticized; people felt that this exaggerated the differences between poor and rich countries. Purchasing power within countries - adjusts and creates a figure that takes into account the actual purchasing power in different countries. GNI per capita (PPP) Purchasing Power Parity World Bank Categories: Low, lower middle, middle, upper middle and high income countries It defines from this what the poverty level is. The Environment Development Debate  Environmental degradation was becoming a problem "sustainable development”: meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs" Chile- Development success stories - However, overfishing occurred. Problems with just using mainly income measurements:  ignores sustainability and quality of life issues like the environment  ignores economic activity outside the formal economy Lecture notes POLB90  Conceals inequality  Inadequacy of Data  Ignores many other indicators of human well- being The meaning "Development": - The human development Index UNDP - Shift from a largely economic based living indicator of development Combines GNI+ Human development indicators: Changes every year - Mortality for children under 5 - Adult literacy, etc. Economic Vulnerability includes:  Instability of exports and goods and services  Instability of agricultural production Problems with HDI  Accuracy and relevancy of information  Makes a judgement as to what indicators are important  Bias towards income growth  A summary: But how do the factors interact? The MDG's  8 goals to achieve by 01  The main actors: OECD, WB, IMF, Civic Society organizations  Emphasis on what is measurable  So what is left out? - Goals 7 and 8 - Environment and Development partnership - There are no dates attached to this LECTURE 3 Development “Ideas”- Searching for Explanations Why is it important to understand the role of ideas?  Important to understand ideas even if we don’t like them as they have roles in social, political and economic development and in turn they have a huge impact  In Latin America in particular, religion had a hierarchical nature  They can justify inaction  Make us not do anything  Ideas the poverty and inequality are necessary for development  Ideas can shape actions  Justification for the cutting of social spending due to the belief that social welfare makes lazy people  Ideas link to interest?  Did Bush invade Iraq because he believed there were weapons of mass destruction or what is out of US interest (economic)  They can even obscure/distort perception  Focusing on measurable goals and not focusing on other goals  You can separate development ideas from foreign policy objectives and political interests  Academics invited into committees, hired as consultants. Interplay between Scholarship and power that we need to be aware of Lecture notes POLB90 The Modernization Perspective Traditional  Primary production (agriculture)  Primitive methods  Large peasant class  Position- heredity  Society- static...they don’t change  Hierarchical  No upward mobility  Absence of special  No influence from the outside Modern  Industrialized  Technically advances methods  Large middle class  Position- skill, education (competition)  Constantly changing  Not hierarchical  People advance upward  Much geographical mobility  Great influence from the outside  Modernization perspective arose in the 1950s as a consequence of the independence of countries in Asia and Africa  Government wanted to understand why these countries didn’t look like western countries  Many authors argued there was a difference between the traditional and modern man. The spirit of people was different Traditional “man”  Lacks ambition  No open to innovation  No knowledge of science/technology  Rests change  Distrustful  Superstitious Modern “man”  Ambitious  Belief in modern science  Knowledge of modern science  Open to change  Consumption oriented  Path to modernity meant one path to modernity and the change of the spirit of the traditional man into one that mirrors the modern man Examples of scholars taking the modernization approach  David McClellan (1966) “need for achievement o Published about china and Southeast Asia. Trying to understand why some countries are modernized and other not o If a country has a “high need for achievement” it would develop rapidly o He went through children’s textbooks and argued that countries with children’s textbooks that reflected a high need for achievement, they would have high rates of economic growth o Involved pulling out one key psychological ingredient which was responsible for whiter or not a country would develop  What was Lerner’s key psychological component? Empathy! Lecture notes POLB90 Values and Development  Notion that there had to be a change in the spirit and values of people in order for there to be development  Max Weber- 19 /early 20 century German sociologist o The protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism o Argued that if the conditions for capitalist growth were present, the right values would propel capitalist development forward o Acknowledge that necessity for Structural conditions make development possible o But values determine whether development actually happens How did Protestantism encourage the growth of capitalism? (Weber)  Business success= “outward sign of inward grace” from God  If you were successful in business you were on the Elect people going to heaven  If you were a failure you were part of the Reprobate- going to the other place  This idea is an extremely powerful propeller of capitalist growth in a Protestant society  This kind of notion was espoused by many political scientists on modernization, but tended to forget about the issues of structural conditions that allow change The absence of “business values” in Latin America  Catholic values from Spain and Portugal- no dynamic protestant ethic.  Produce whole set of behaviors that were not good for capitalist growth o Promote family members instead of the most competent o Personal loyalty of competence o Authoritarian decision-making over discussion o Failure to take risks o Quick profits over long-term investment o Disinterest in technology and efficiency Problems with emphasis on values  Ignores historical context and opportunity structure  Faced with high inflation, political instability and polarization- these conditions reinforce catholic values and make them very resilient  There is no direct correlation between religion and social structures  South US- slave society but majority was protestant  Once you put catholic entrepreneurs and put them in MNCs, their attitudes were very different and their thinking changed Political systems Tradition LECTURE 4 September 24, 2013 Perspectives on Underdevelopment: Dependency, Marxism and Imperialism The Dependency Perspective  No one approach- variety of ways of looking at problems of GS  Key Assumptions: o The World system, not the nation state as the unit of analysis  Modernization is about internal construct- values, institutions
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