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Lecture 2

POLB90 Readings Week 2 - 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Judith Teichman

Class Readings POLB90 Week 2 The Challenge of Third World Development- Howard Handelman  No agreement on a collective name for the approximately 150 countries that constitute the developing world o First “underdeveloped”  This suggest backwardness o Second “Developing”  Too much optimism about country prospects o “Third World”  Has both the virtue and defect of being fuzzy  They fall under this banner not because of any specific quality but because they are not members of either the First or Second World o These countries however differ considerably Third world Commonalities  All suffer from some aspects of political, economic, or social underdevelopment o While some third world countries are underdeveloped in all major aspects of modernization, others are far more advanced in some aspects of development then others. Economic Underdevelopment Poverty is the most salient characteristic of developing countries.  National level: GDP per capita, highly unequal income distribution, poor infrastructure, limited use of modern technology, low consumption of energy.  Grassroots level: economic underdevelopment connotes widespread scarcity, substantial unemployment, substandard housing, poor health conditions, and inadequate nutrition. o The data illustrates both the tremendous gap between most first and Third world countries.  However, Mexicans and Brazilians earn about eight times more than the average Nigerian or Ethiopian.  While less than 2% of Singapore’s population and less than 6% of Mexicans die before the age of 40, more than one-third of all Nigerians and Ethiopians die young. Social underdevelopment There is a correlation between Third World poverty and poor social conditions  If LDC’s are to modernize and develop in all aspects, they must extend to improve their educational systems. o An educated workforce contributes to higher labor productivity, expands mass political participation and maintenance of a democratic government.  Government policies significantly affect the extent to which economic growth produces social development o Collecting taxes, avoiding corruption, allocating a larger share of its public spending to health care, sanitation and education. Political underdevelopment  Political development involves the creation of specialized and differentiated government institutions that effectively carry out necessary functions. o Developed governments must be responsive to a broad segment of society and respect the populations fundamental freedoms and rights Introduction: Moving from MDGs to GDGs- David Hulme and Rorden Wilkinson Today the world has enough food for everyone to be fed, and the resources and technology to provide basic services-primary education, health services and even social assistance are available. Class Readings POLB90  The problem is that our world is organized in such a way that around 1.5 to 2.5 billion people (depending on how you define poverty) have little or no access to the most basic of human needs. In a world of unprecedented affluence, why had it taken so long for leaders to agree to meet the most basic needs of so many fellow human beings living in extreme poverty?  While the MDGs spell out "what is to be achieved," they do not explain "why” so many people are poor, "what should be done" and what policies ought to be pursued to eradicate poverty. Upside to MDGs:  Raised awareness of mass poverty Downside to MDGs:  Abrogated any focus on macroeconomic development  Neglected the role of employment in national and international strategies  The failure to place quantifiable and time- specific measures for goal 8 The key players in global poverty reduction are the national governments of the countries in which very poor people live. Week 3 The Passing of Traditional Society- Daniel Lerner Daniel Lerner is one of the key proponents of the modernisation theory, which says that the rest of the world should follow the Western concept of modernity to achieve development. Argues that modernization implies no ethnocentrism o Western model of globalization exhibits characteristics that relevant everywhere  Middle Eastern modernizers would do well to study the historical sequence of the West.  Western society still provides the most developed model of societal attributes which Middle East spokesmen continue to advocate as their own goal. A problem with Middle Eastern modernization is its own ethnocentrism  Hatred sown by anticolonialism  Want modern institutions, but not modern ideologies, modern power but not modern purposes, modern wealth but not wisdom, modern commodities but not modern cant. The Mobile Personality: Empathy Attached to this modernity is a distinctive personality. To be a modern individual, one must be able to empathise with others. Lerner argues those who cannot see themselves in the shoes of others will not develop.  High empathic capacity is the predominant personal style only in modern society, which is distinctively industrial, urban, literate and participant. o Whereas the isolated communities of traditional society functioned well on the basis of a highly constrictive personality, the interdependent sectors of modern society require widespread participation. o People’s worldviews were limited to their physical horizons and their decisions involved other people in similar situations o Empathy enabled the person to operate efficiently in the modern society which was constantly changing  Allowed the individual to internalize the process of modernization by not only being able to cope with change, but also expecting and demanding it. Class Readings POLB90 The Mobile Multiplier: Mass media  The global network of mass media exposed individuals to new people, ideas and attitudes o Helped accelerate the process of modernization  In the third world people could expand their empathy by exposure to mass media, which showed them new places, behaviours and cultures,  Would help replace the structure of life, values and behaviours of traditional communities with ones seen in modern western society. The Change to Change: Modernization, Development and Politics - Samuel Huntington ‘’The primary problem of politics (in developing countries) is the lag of the development of political institutions behind social and economic change’’  The focus on economic development has helped fuel the ongoing cycle of instability within these countries due to a lack of focus on political development o This plan was enshrined by nations who had always had a stable government Huntington criticizes the modernization theory, arguing that its argument about economic change and development being the prime factors responsible for the creation of stable, democratic political systems is flawed.  Focuses on other factors like urbanization, increased literacy, social mobilization, and economic growth. o He stresses that those factors are not significantly related to political development; in fact a major part of his argument is that those processes are related but distinct.  Economic development and Political development are two goals independent of each other Huntington argues that order itself is a crucial objective in developing countries. The existence (or lack) of the order should not be confused with the issue of the type of that order (both on political level - democratic, authoritarian, and on economic level - socialist, free-market, etc.)  Huntington makes the argument that while modernity equals stability, modernization is actually a cause for instability, due to urbanization, rising expectations due to literacy, education and the spread of media, etc. o Social frustration leads to demands on the government and the expansion of political participation to enforce those demands.  Economic development increases economic inequality at the same time that social mobilization decreases the legitimacy of that inequality. Both aspects of modernization produce political instability o Uneven distribution of wealth in these poorer countries Week 4 The development of underdevelopment- Andre Gunder Frank Argues that theoretical development policies follow a strictly European and North American viewpoint  Ignores the experience of those who were colonized  Our ignorance of the underdeveloped countries histories leads us to assume that their past and indeed their present resembles earlier stages of the history of the now developed countries  Failure to explain the structure of the capitalist system and the effects it has had in promoting underdevelopment Development as the west sees it occurs in stages, and underdeveloped countries are still in the early stages of their history.  Underdevelopment is not original or traditional o The now developed countries were never underdeveloped, though they may have been undeveloped. Class Readings POLB90  They never faced the challenges that plagued the developing world  Colonization, foreign intervention o Many of these countries were actually thriving ‘‘The economic, political, social, and cultural institutions and relations we observe there ( in the global south) are the products of the historical development of the capitalist system no less than are the seemingly more modern or capitalist features of the national metropoles of these underdeveloped countries’’  Thesis: Products of the single historical process of capitalist development Metropolis- Satellite relations Frank presents a theory of modernization that is based on a global relation of economic domination and exploitation, or what he calls “metropolis-satellite relations.”  Frank’s primary points of reference are Latin American countries, which occupy a satellite position in relation to their Iberian colonial metropoles. o Frank argues that underdevelopment arises out of this metropolis-satellite relation because it is essentially a hier
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