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POLB90 Lec 3 - Modernization.docx

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Political Science
Matthew Hoffmann

POLB90 Lecture 3 Tuesday, September 17, 2013 +Development Ideas – Searching for Explanations Why is it important to understand the role of ideas? • Theory can justify inaction – e.g. poverty and inequality are necessary components to development • Ideas can shape action – tightening up unemployment because it’s pretty easy to get • Ideas linked to interest? - did Bush invade Iraq from other interests or for helping the country • They can even obscure/distort reality – the quality of democracy The Modernization Perspective Traditional Modern • Primary production (agric) - industrialized • Primitive methods - technically advanced methods • Large peasant class -large middle class • Position – heredity - position – skill, education • Society – static - constantly changing • Hierarchical -people advance upward • No upward mobility • Absence of special mobility • No influence from the outside Traditional “man” Modern “man” • Lacks ambition - ambitious • Not open to innovation -belief in modern science • No knowledge of science/technology -knowledge of modern science • Resists change - open to change • Distrustful • Superstitious Examples of Scholars taking the modernization approach: • David McClelland (1966) “need for achievement” • If a country had a “high need for achievement” it would develop rapidly. • Went through children’s textbooks 1935-1950. Countries with children’s textbook that reflected high need for achievement, high rates of economic growth. Involved pulling out one key psychological ingredient that was responsible whether or not a country developed. • What about Lerner’s key psychological component? • Empathy. (looking at people’s psychological development is key) Values and Development • Max Weber – “19 /early 20 century German sociologist o The protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism  Relationship between Protestantism and the rise of capitalism in German. If the condition of capitalism was present, then values would propel capitalist development forward. Need for certain structural condition. • Structural conditions make development possible • Values determine whether development actually happens POLB90 Lecture 3 Tuesday, September 17, 2013 How did Protestantism encourage the growth of capitalism? (Weber) Business success = “outward sign of inward grace” Successful  among the elect (one way ticket to heaven Unsuccessful  among the Reprobate. • Religion that drove capitalist development forward, no reluctance about becoming a capitalism. God would look favorably on you and you would go to heaven. • Have the structural conditioning and can no longer defend interest; way for business to move forward is being open to change. • Focus on value and forget the issues of development. Absence of “business values” in LatinAmerica Catholic values from Spain and Portugal • Promote family members instead of the most competent • Personal loyalty over competence • Authoritarian decision-making over discussion • Failure to take risks • Quick profits over long-term investment • Disinterest in technology and efficiency Problems with an emphasis on values • Ignores historical context and opportunity structure • Inhibited the dynamics of Protestantism. • Interaction between conditions and values POLITICALSYSTEMS Traditional versus Modern “Undifferentiated” Complex • Adjudicates the law and • Different levels that carry out the rules the functions of the • Different agencies political system • Organizations have different roles, only a few carry out the basic responsibilities The Idea of “Political development” Moving from the undifferentiated an simple to complex and differentiated • Emil Durkheim (enormous impact on Political Science) o Division of Labour o Modernization = differentiation  As modernization occurs you get more distinct specialized roles emerging  Concerned with the division of labour. POLB90 Lecture 3 Tuesday, September 17, 2013  As a consequence of various facets of labour, mass communication. Increasing specialization in communication o Political scientists drew from Durkheim  From industrialization and Urbanization  Emergency of new social group, organization, differentiated political structure  Increasing complexity in government structure  Argument went where conducive to the breakdown of traditional hierarchical authority. Working class trade union/rise of business groups, etc., all this was going to lead to modern political arrangements.  Modern political parties, political stability, democracy  Very concerned about political stability.  Having two political parties is ideal, immediate conflict but everyone is given a choice. Gabriel Almond and Bingham Powell, Comparative Politics. A Developmental Approach, 1966 (Structural functionalist systems approach) • Politics best understood as a “system.” (based on David Easton’s work) o Inputs = demands interest articulation  Political parties taking demands and come up with a platform.  Political sys
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