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POLB90 Lec 4 - Dependency.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Matthew Hoffmann

POLB90 Tuesday, September 24, 2013 Lecture 4 – Perspective on Underdevelopment: Dependency, Marxism and Imperialism The Dependency Perspective • Many variations of it, many point of views. Amongst people took moral point of view, from general perspective, there were still difference. • Key assumptions o The World system, not the nation state as the unit of analysis  Economic system, not on internal processes.  Causes of problems of GS countries arose from the world system. o Must examine history  Looking at current system, take a snap shot and notice the problems.  How it corporates into the world system.  Economic system, politics is involved. The Reformist Strain of Dependency • Looking at countries with their conditions, • Economic Commission for Latin America – Raul Prebisch – 1940s o ECLAbegan to publish working paper/documents that talked about the impact of the world economic system on LatinAmerica • Primary producing periphery • The industrialized centre o Produces good purchased from the periphery • Unrestrained competition o Creating deteriorating condition in the South o Whereas, the products produced by the GS, fluctuate, high in price. • Deterioration in the terms of trade o Unfair trade system (ECLA) ECLA’s Solutions • Bargaining power of developing countries in international trade be strengthened • Stimulate industrialization through protection, foreign investment and national planning o Neoliberalists are against it. ECLAis not in charge of economic regulating o ECLAis blamed for all the problems in LatinAmerica later on. • Create a LatinAmerican common market o Many countries in LatinAmerica took the advice, to have something back to compensate the problems Global Capitalism and Underdevelopment Expansion of Europe was instrumental and repeating in the Global South • Andre Gunder Frank (radical dependency) o Well-known in Europe andAmerica o Became the one everyone grasped onto o His ideas were to have everyone critized. People were not aware of other writers • Marxist Theories of Imperialism o Inspired Frank o Lenin’s theory of imperialism  Believed that global south countries were affected by the expansion of ‘monopoly capitalism”  View on capitalism: drew on Marx, argued that the developed countries needed to find markets, their own markets at home were declining. Needed raw materials. Precipitated the market in Europe. o P. Baran and P. Sweezy, 1968, Monopoly Capital  Expansion of world capitalism/colonialism POLB90 Tuesday, September 24, 2013  Ideas aren’t distinct IMPERIALISM IMPEDED DEVELOPMENT Radical Dependency: Andrew Gunder Frank • Deterioration in the terms of trade. • Industrial growth was not eliminating unemployment and underemployment o Open up jobs, people were not absorbed into the formal labour force. • Growth rates were declining • Social inequality was not declining o Attempted to construct a framework to help us understand why this is not happening o Primary producing periphery, industrial centre. • The benefits of industrialization were not trickling down What is the metropole/sa
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