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POLB90 Lec 7.docx

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Political Science
Matthew Hoffmann

POLB90 Lecture 7 Tuesday, October 22, 2013 Pre-colonial Societies and the Impact of Colonization • Post-colonial thinkers alert us that the expansion of Europe had profound impact on the attitudes of the colonized Europeans. • Modernization perspective operated from the premise that simple derivatives making transition. o What happened? Why very developed cities were ‘behind’? Trading Empires with ComplexAdministrative Structures • Africa • From 1083 AD, trade betweenAfrica and China o Silver and gold through Mozambique • African trade with India andArabia • Trading Empires: o In order to become a trading empire, you have to have a complex administrative structure. Keep order of exports, organize merchants, and regulate trade.  Katanga (Zaire)  Mexico (Aztecs)  India [dynamic and textile industry]  China [had gun powder and printing press] Societies with Significant TechnologicalAdvances Example: • The Meroes Empire o 8 Century BC  Engaged in iron work  23 character alphabet  Meroitic Finery Other Examples th th • Nok Empire (northern Nigthia, 4 thd 5 centuries • Mali Empire, Africa, 12 and 13 centuries o Theory that the Mali Empire was able to sell toAmerica. o Found images of black people in CentralAmerica. th • Maya, CentralAmerica, 11 century o Had calendar more advanced than theAmerican calendar. o Had written language • India (exporter of textiles) • Sophisticated agricultural systems: India, China, Peru (Inca) o Can’t move on until able to produce agricultural surplus Features of Some Pre-Colonial Societies • Complex administrative structures o Maintenance required extensive administrative work • Skill and competence counted o It was where you were born and what social group you were born into. o Particularly in pre-colonial societies, competence and skill were taken into account. • Provision of basic needs POLB90 Lecture 7 Tuesday, October 22, 2013 o Some of them were very good at providing basic needs to people o Stem from concept that disappeared with colonial rules – sharing obligation o No concept of private property (can often interfere with distribution of basic needs and living standards of lower part of the system) o Cannot sell or throw lower cast off the land. Moral obligation to ensure the lower cast. o Peru (Inca): land was given to family in accordance to their needs and their ability to • Imperialism o Political control and acquisition of resources of conquered societies 1400: European Expansion begins • Rise of trade, decline of feudal Europe. • Emergence of artisanal industries (particularly in textiles) • Began to expand o Food (soil began to deplete) o Trade routes o Bullion (gold, silver) Expansion of Europe • 1400-1500 – Portugal – North and NortheastAfrica o 1480s Portugal took over Indian Motion Trade. o Establish direct trading relations with India o Cohesion required, civilization East ofAfrica began to decline o Portugal increased taxes. o Trade declines in region due to all the fighting and warfare. o Involved in theAmericas (Brazil). Competed with Spain to controlAmerica • 1500-1600 – Spain – theAmericas o Facilitate by  diseases (Americans were not resistant to European diseases)  weapons (steel and horses) • Motivations wealth, religious conversion Consequences of the Conquest of theAmericas • Destruction of pre-colonial civilizations • Drastic drop in population o Encounter of Spanish and Portuguese. • Emergences of mixed-blood population (mestizo) o Consequence of intermingling of Spanish conquest and indigenous population o Majority of the country are mestizo. • Complete economic re-organization o Mass amount of gold and silver for the European market. o Organize labour to extract all of this. o Emergence of enormous land holdings POLB90 Lecture 7 Tuesday, October 22, 2013 o Concentration of wealth  Conquest assumed that the conquerors had the right to extract enormous amount of wealth.  Ultimately not Spain, most were shipped to Spain created inflation, manufactured goods pricing went up and couldn’t compete with British manufactures goods. Profits flowed to Britain instead. 1650-1800: British Hegemony and the Slave Trade •
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