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POLB91_LECTURE 4_Outline.doc

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Political Science
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R Rice

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LECTURE 4 Military Intervention and Security OUTLINE: I. Causes of Military Intervention II. The Military in Power III. Bringing Dictators to Justice IV. Crime, Violence and Insecurity _______________________________________________________________________ _ I. Causes of Military Intervention Coup d’etat: “strike at the state”; military takeover of power • Topple govt in favour of another or themselves 1. The Nature of the Armed Force • Explains the frequency and nature of military intervention based on the internal characteristics of the military itself • Psych make up of officers • a) Origins of Officers • Officers from humble origins = more likely to interfere in politics on behalf of the interest of the populous b) Training • Officers whose training focuses on internal rather than external threats more likely to the intervene in politics • Military should be involved in outside threat • When they study about internal/domestic conflict = more likely to intervene c) Civic Action • Military personnel do participate in local development initiatives are more likely to intervene in politics • Allow military a fold hold in the arena 2. The Nature of Civilian Regimes challenged by the military • Argues that military intervention is more likely in weak political systems characterized by instability a) Political Institutions • When civilian governments enjoy wide spread support and legitimacy and they are effective channels of representation, military intervention is unlikely. • Institution building = antidote to intervention and unrest b) Political Culture • Societies which believe in democracy should be the only game in town are less likely to support and tolerate coups. • Strong public support and lack of military support o Eg. India c) Level of Development • Poorer countries are more likely to suffer from military takeovers. • More likely to have revolutions • Formula in 1995 o GNP = lower income under $500 have successful military coups. o GNP = lower middle income is greater than $1000 will have coup attempts o GNP= income greater than $3000 will not have coup attempts II. The Military in Power • Does military rule produce greater political stability and socio economic development? o Personalitistic – bastista, mobutu o Bureaucracy – nassar and valaisco = systematic and beyond themselves Combating Corruption • Nope • They start lining their pockets early because they know they wont be in power long and another coup attempt will be made • Spend lots on military- different priorities Establishing Stability • Instituting Marshall law, enforcement techniques – effective in short term • Closed system, no channels for voice, breed resentment, join revolutionary groups. In long terms, it breeds more instability by having a closed system. Promoting Economic Development • Need to give the bitter meds to end economic crisis • Mixed – depending on military regimes and personality • Endurance of military governments depends on their economic performance Democracy can withstand pressures but military governments can quickly be undermined. That’s why there was a huge shift to democracy after debt crisis III. Bringing Dictators to Justice- Truth Commission • Tasked with discovering wrong doing by military governments • Exposure and coming to terms • Number of victims, testimonies, pictures • Only public shaming – bad publicity but no real punishment Accountability Trial • The prosecution and sentencing of military personal found guilty of part crimes against • Deter future dictators or military personnel • Respect for law and democracy and rule of l
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