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Lecture 9

POL B91 Lecture 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
R Rice

Lecture 9 3/17/2013 10:47:00 PM LECTURE 9: Religion, Politics and Development I. Social Cleavages II. Development and Religious Revivalism III. Islamic Fundamentalism IV. Liberation Theology V. Debate ______________________________________________________ I. Social Cleavages: (the fault lines of democratic systems) the social political divisions within a society around which political parties organize a) Class Cleavages - social distinctions that reflects the division of society according to income and social position - represents the three broad classes  working class  middle class  upper class - found in European countries - most stable b) Ethnic - party systems with an ethnic cleavage structure with an ethnic cleavage structure tend to have numerous parties that reflect and represent ethnicities or languages - creates problems, can be risky - more in the south then in the North - however ethnic parties are not always negative c) Religious - parties within these political systems are based on religious affiliation (and they face similar problems as those of ethic cleavages) - religious distinction can sometimes be key in difference - Example India d) Regional - the division of society along geographic or regional lines - parties representing regional differences - these differences can become explosive because they may promote policies that benefit themselves - Examples Italy  strong northern southern divide - Ecuador  Highlands / coast II. Development and Religious Revivalism - development theory assume secularization  the removal of religion from politics (western assumption for rest of the world as well) The Link between Development and Religious Revivalism A) development bases on Western Notions of progress have threatened cultural identities and ways of life - leading in some cases to a religious backlash - it can create a backlash if perused too quickly B) the poverty and inequality generated by mainstream development policies have pushed individuals to search for alternative answers - citizens may feel it is unfair because they cant compare C) the technological wolf of modernization enable religious fundamentalists to preach to a wide audience D) historically, the indignities of colonialism and today’s neocolonialism have generated resentment towards Western imposed development schemes E) failed development schemes and secular ideologies have not met the spiritual and development needs of people of in the South III. Islamic Fundamentalism Fundamentalism - refers to movements of religiously inspired reaction to aspects of global processes of modernization and secularization including the struggle to 2 assert or reassert the norms and beliefs of traditional religion in the public order Radical Fundamentalists - feel they are conducting a holy war against forces that are threatening to corrupt their religious values Conservative Fundamentalists - who wish to shield
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