• A major determinant of development strategies and outcomes is the
character of the state and the domestic power structures and political
coalitions underpinning it.
• Types of state power:
o Despotic power: the power to control and suppress (characterizes the
o Infrastructural power: the power to administer and transform (typical
of the Global North)
• Roots of despotic power:
o State borders and institutions were artificially imposed by colonial
rulers, bringing groups of people together.
o Bolivia-> first time that people joined the military and the government
finally registered their names.
Strong despotic power but weak transformative or infrastructural
o The purpose and point of colonial rule was extractive and not
o Despotic power protects the interest of the ruling elites against the
o Characteristics of the colonial states were entrenched by the ruling
elites after independence to protect their interests.
• Market Democracy and Development
o Mainstream View: There is a natural affinity