I. Revolution + Evolution
Is revolution universal in meaning? If revolution is a in one place or in one time, is it A in another place
in another time?
o Revolution is a radical change in the political or social order of society. Revolution is
defined/ understood as a very rapid change, which usually requires violence.
o An example of a revolution is Russia.
o Just because something happening is violent, doesn’t make it a revolution.
There are two forms of revolution
(1) Violent change is (usually) rapid, and bloody
-i.e. Europe: 1789
(2) Evolution change is slow, but effective
-i.e. The E.U (started after 1945, 1952 Luxemburg treaty-1957 Rome treaty)
Two methods of revolution
(1) Revolution can begin as an uprising amongst the people (frustrated)—starts at the bottom and aims
at the government/regime (laws/burerocracy)
o i.e. 1789 in Paris (absolute power resided with the King, upset people—King beheaded)
o The creation of citizenship (form of political behaviour and the notion of sovereignty) is a
result of this revolution
(2) Revolution can begin from the top to the bottom (evolution), where change is initiated by the
o i.e 1215 England where power of the king was substantially cut before being transferred to