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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Waldemar Skrobacki

Lecture 1 I. Revolution + Evolution  Is revolution universal in meaning? If revolution is a in one place or in one time, is it A in another place in another time? o Revolution is a radical change in the political or social order of society. Revolution is defined/ understood as a very rapid change, which usually requires violence. o An example of a revolution is Russia. o Just because something happening is violent, doesn’t make it a revolution.  There are two forms of revolution (1) Violent change is (usually) rapid, and bloody -i.e. Europe: 1789 (2) Evolution change is slow, but effective -i.e. The E.U (started after 1945, 1952 Luxemburg treaty-1957 Rome treaty)  Two methods of revolution (1) Revolution can begin as an uprising amongst the people (frustrated)—starts at the bottom and aims at the government/regime (laws/burerocracy) o i.e. 1789 in Paris (absolute power resided with the King, upset people—King beheaded) o The creation of citizenship (form of political behaviour and the notion of sovereignty) is a result of this revolution (2) Revolution can begin from the top to the bottom (evolution), where change is initiated by the government/governing body. o i.e 1215 England where power of the king was substantially cut before being transferred to the parliament.  Evolutionary p
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