They are countries those aren’t democratic. Democratic countries are those that have free trade
election, civil liberties and universal adult suffrage. There are broad ranges of authoritarian regimes:
Hybrid or competitive authoritarian, “normal” authoritarian, and totalitarianism. Authoritarianism can
be explained through democratic failures.
“Normal” authoritarian regimes are those most seen today. It is focused on keeping and
increasing power. Active support is not must sought after and more of controlling active
opposition. There is no ambition for a radical social change.
Totalitarianism is radical rejection of old order. There is no independent civil society so there
could be total control over citizens. There is also constant mobilization to have active support of
citizens rather than passive acceptance. State also has control over economy and can control
prices and production. In addition they use terror to reign over population
Approaches to democratic failure: (Are also known as sources of authoritarianism)
a) Leadership/values (Voluntarist side of spectrum)
Look at two things: the values of leaders and leadership skills
b) Institutionalist (Institutional design on voluntarist side of spectrum)
We look at institutional design because what’s written in the constitution affect political
outcomes. Parliamentary regimes are seen of a more stable democracy because
parliament selects executive.
c) Polarization (structural side of spectrum)
no consensus on rules of game
Threat of violence
Creates stalemate and chaos that leaves an opening for authoritarian leaders
Survival valued over democracy
d) Economic development (Structural side of spectrum)
Wealthy counties tend to be more democratic: Western European and North America
both are wealthiest per capita and overwhelmingly stable and democratic.
Poorer countries like Africa and former Soviet Union are less democratic (with a few
exceptions like Ghana, Singapore)
Is viewed as wealth, industrialization, urbanization, education
In order to become wealthy, a country needs to industrialize (This would help boost the
In order to industrialize, need urbanization and education in order to bring people closer to
factories and give them work skills.
Modernization empowers population to demand democracy
However it is more difficult for rural population to organize and empower. With an increased
urban population it is easier. In addition having access to mass communication helps spread
ideas and news about other movements.
Success = Greater participation
Presidentialism v parliamentarism Parliamentarism:
Executive directly elected for fixed term.
Strong constitutional powers over cabinet
Governments authority dependent on parliamentary confidence
President holds too much concentrated power which can lead to dictatorship
It can become a rigid regime and lead