Lecture 2- Revolutions.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Spyridon Kostivilis

Political Science and Modern Europe: Revolutions Revolutions • Instances in which state or political regime is overthrown by a popular movement in irregular fashion. • The rapid, fundamental, and often violent transformation of a country’s state, structure, social structure, that is accompanied and caused by mass-based revolts from below – In Class Definition. • Transformations: o State Transformation – Destruction of old army, and a creation of a new one. o Social Structure Transformation – Large-scale nationalization of private property, major land reform, and destruction of land owning class. Religion is included in this. • Examples of Revolutions are France in 1789, Russia in 1917, China in 1949, Cuba in 1959, and Iran in 1979. Characteristics of Revolutions • Violence  Smashing class and state is not easy without violence. • Rare  they do not happen often, as they need coordinating. • They create durable regimes  USSR (74 years). • Foster new ideas  Communism, Nationalism, etc. Explaining Revolutions (Structural) 1. Poverty or Misery: a. Under certain conditions, people are pushed to the point where they can’t take it anymore. People have nothing to lose but their chains. Misery usually breeds passivity, or a focus on survival. Poorer people usually have less education, which may result in more violent solutions. 2. Relative Deprivation: a. People tend to focus on relative misery rather than absolute misery (If the people around you are richer, you tend to get angry). An example of this is the Toronto Garbage Strike in 2010. They didn’t get enough sick days, so they got angry. b. A J-Curve is when there is steady growth and then people are set over the edge (Boston red-sox doing well but getting angry when they don’t win the World Series). This is a structuralism theory 3. Marxist Theory: a. This is a class-based analysis. Actions and beliefs are rooted in position in economic hierarchy (haves vs. have-nots). People don’t give up what they have without a fight. b. The Bourgeois Revolution is based on your wealth by land ownership and religion. Capitalism then overthrows aristocracy (as seen in France), then the commercial interest reigns supreme. c. A Com
More Less

Related notes for POLB92H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.