European Political Science
Lecture 8: The Soviet Union
After the Revolutions
• After the October Revolution the Constituent Assembly held an election,
and the Socialist Revolutionaries won with 41%. The Socialist
Revolutionaries were formed in 1902 by Victor Chernov and supported
land socialization. They split in 1917 and the Right SRs and Left SRs were
formed. The Left SRs supported the Bolsheviks.
• The Civil War broke out when the Bolsheviks wanted the war to end, but
they only controlled a small part of the country. They wanted to have a
world socialist revolution, but the German kept on invading. Lenin said,
“Lets have a treaty” and demanded a high cost. They agreed to one and it
gave up a lot of land. This did not make the Bolsheviks popular.
• Leon Trotsky’s job was to build the Red Army. He thought of bringing in the
former Czarist generals. They held the Czarists generals’ families’ hostage
and would kill them if they did not do a good job.
• The Red Terror was inspired by the French Revolution’s terror. They
targeted the whole class, and an attempted an assassination of Lenin.
This is how the KGB was formed. Somewhere between 50 and 200
thousand people died. The Bolsheviks ultimately won the terror. This