European Political Science
Lecture 3: Europe During the Cold
• Demonstration Effect (Voluntarism)
o The power of example is very powerful (Diffusion), and was
prominent in the Arab Spring. This is Democratization by
o This is a voluntarist theory because it is based on individual
perception, and is highly contingent. It is also very unpredictable
and demonstrations usually shock the world when they happen.
• Globalization (Structuralism)
o Ever since WWII there was been cheap air travel and the
emergence of things such as fax machines. It is hard for leaders to
control communication because of the multiple ways information
o Communication into countries is considered easy, information out of
countries is a lot harder to hide, and communication on a global
scale is much easier.
• Global Balance of Power (Structuralism)
o Democratization affected by which states are the global powers.
Autocratic global powers are more authoritarian regimes. There
was a large dominance of democratic global power in the 1900s,
which meant less funding for autocrats.
The Western Economic Dominance
• The United States, UK, and France dominated the democratic and
capitalist world and had a large GDP, compared to the Soviet empire
(USSR) which did not have a strong economy.
• BUT, The east and west had the same army size, which made the Cold
War so scary. The USSR was the main reason for the end of World War 2
and thus made them a dominant power in Europe. This also allowed for
the spread of communism in Eastern Europe, which rivaled the democracy
in the Western world.
The Rise of Communism
• Europe was split up after World War 2 and Russia had control of many
countries in Eastern Europe. The Soviet regime was controlled by the
communist party, which had total control over the individual. There was also a state controlled economy that heavily contributed to Soviet
• Communism emerged after 1945 and had relatively free elections.
Coalition Governments were set up, which had a large impact on