● What is it, what causes it and we will focus on two different definitions
● We apply theories to two cases, French Revolution and Russian revolution
Authoritarianism and Terror
● Why does democracy fail?
● Terror vs. other forms of oppression, and the causes of terror
● Great terror in France, Stalin, the holocaust
● Central apparatus of political or coercive power in a particular national territory (police,
military, welfare office)
● Maintains order, and service to the citizens
● Set of rules by which political power is allocated
● Democracy, heredity, monarchy, who possesses the biggest gun
● Azerbaijan (former USSR) hosted a conference. Professor had to criticize the country,
and gave a speech in which he referred to the regime as having corruption etc.
Afterwards they went to a pub and they agreed with him. They were insulted by the word
"regime". The word, "regime" suggests illegitimacy. You only use it in case when the ruler
is so much in power that power is gained in use.
● Group of people in power at the time
● Changes the most often, the most impermanent
● E.g. Obama, Harper etc.
Canadian Revenue Agency=State
Muammar Qaddafi=Government (Highly personalized, his whim determines the rules and
therefore regime. He can be all three. Developing countries, this can be fuzzy. More distinctive
in an Industrial Country)
Dependent Variable and Independent Variable
● DV = What are you trying to explain?
○ Why the civil war in Syria?
● IV = The factors that you think explain the outcome
● e.g. I'm hungry because not eaten all day. IV is not eating and DV is hunger.
● Very difficult for any person to alter
● Long term factors that don't easily change
● Very PREDICTABLE.
● Limited number of possible outcomes
● Depends on the action of a particular person or event
● UNPREDICTABLE or contingent
● Any outcome may be possible!
● Anytime you see a name. It suggests that it's a person's choice that affected the
e.g. Making Albania a democracy. SE would say, "Oh, pl