Midterm: 1 hour long, half MC half short answers
● Causes of French Revolution
● 1848 Revolutions
● Causes of 1848 (Marxist, Economic downturn, Diffusion)
● How was Russian Tsaris regime vulnerable?
● What role did Lenin play in the revolution? (Voluntarist--leadership)
● What ways did the provisional government weak?
● What would have happened if Lenin didn’t play a role?
● Russia was very much like France
● Tsarist rule was even more centralized; absolute monarchy
○ Aristocracy was less independent
● Russia was a major power
○ BUT less economically developed, and heavily indebted to the west
● Russian society was heavily divided
○ 80% were serfs
○ Small working class and concentrated in key cities
■ They were very radical and the govt responded violently to any types of
labour demands because they wanted to protect foreign investment --
therefore making them more radical
○ Why would you not want the worker to get higher wages?
■ They are the basis of your power. They can be easily bought out if they
○ Not many positions available even for the highly educated, except to work for the
government. Nothing else to do, became radicals.
○ Populists (Narodniki)
■ The Russian soul lived in the countryside, letting the peasants gain
■ Russian salvation in traditional peasant communities (obshchina)
● Had collective control over land
■ They went to the countryside to awaken the peasants, the government
was freaked out and when they saw these educated people go the
countryside, they assumed the worst.
■ The peasants turned them into the police. “Who the hell are you guys?”
■ Considered the first “terrorists”
● “Real Russia” is repressed by aristocracy! The population will
naturally rise up and take control ● No positive program, we want to destroy the whole damn thing
● Assassinated tsar Alexander II
○ Replaced with more aristocratic tsar--the opposite of what
■ They were the opposite of “romanticising the real Russia”
■ They thought peasants and peasant communities were ridiculous
■ They want the peasants to move beyond the countryside to create a
modern industrial society
● They want to organise a revolution for the sake of the next
■ 1898 Russian Social Democratic Labor Party -- included Lenin
● There was a party split between the Bolsheviks (Lenin--an
abrasive guy, less about the ideology and more about whether you
loved or hated him) and Mensheviks
● Lenin wanted it all right away. We need to have the socialist
revolution as soon as possible, and we can’t have a huge party.
● Bolsheviks: We are the elite to act as a vanguard of the people
● Mensheviks: Socialist party with broad membership and support.
More the merrier!
○ Why would lenin not want a big party? He can’t control
them! In order to have a party that is effective, you need
people who are experts.
● 1905 Revolt
○ “Dress Rehearsal”
○ Thought they could wipe out Japan, and failed
○ Created a crisis in the government. The economy was declining.
○ All the troops were in Asia
○ There were increasing demands for National Legislature (Duma)
■ They began to demonstrate
○ Bloody Sunday--1000 deaths
■ Started strikes and protests throughout Russia
■ Soviets in Russian meant “council” = Council of Worker Reps
■ October Manifesto -- creation of Duma (parliament)
■ Once the army returned from Asia, the Duma dissolved
● 1917 Revolution
○ Russia is brought into WWI
■ Take the side of France and England vs. Germany and Austria-Hungary
■ War goes poorly, the Russian army were peasants, and they didn’t have
■ Enormous starvation and disaffection towards the tsar -- protests
■ 1.6-1.8 million deaths by 1916
■ Severe weakening of the state!***
○ February Revolution ■ Spontaneous
■ Women were waiting for bread during food shortages, and