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POBL92H Introductory Class + Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science

Introductory Class 07/05/2012 12:10:00 PM POLB92H Tharrny Selvathaybaran Lecture ONE May 7 th2012 THE WEST A “Glorious Revolution” ends nearly 4 years of Roman Catholic rule in England (see 1688), and the War of the League of Augsburg pits Protestant Europe and much of Catholic Europe against France’s Louis XIV Bill of Rights, 1689
 one of the fundamental instruments of constitutional law Among other things, it gave inviolable civil and political rights to the people and political supremacy to Parliament. 1789 Great French Revolution: FRATERNITY, EQUALITY, and LIBERTY RULE OF LAW: The form of government in which no power can be exercised, except according to procedures, principles and constraints contained in the law, and in which any citizen can find redress against any other, however powerfully placed, and against the officers of the state itself, for any action which involves a breach of the law CONSTITUTIONALISM: The advocacy of constitutional government, i.e. of government channeled through and limited by a constitution. The major current of western political thought in the 17th and 18th centuries was constitutionalist, and included HOBBES, LOCKE, MONTESQUIEU, and the FOUNDING FATHERS OF THE US. CITIZENRY (citizen vs. subject – American and French Revolutions. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS: Political: vote, be elected, speech, assembly, worship, be protected by the law Social: welfare protection, education, labor laws, INDIVIDUALISM (INDIVIDUATION): 930 Althing (Iceland)
 1215 MAGNA CARTA (United Kingdom) HABEAS CORPUS 1688-1689 Glorious Revolution (UK) The Old Europe vs. The New Europe: The Idea of Europe OLD EUROPE (before 1945) NEW EUROPE (after 1945) Intellectual Tradition Political History Intellectual Tradition (New) Political History * Arguments for democracy
 * Limited Gov’t
 * Civil Rights (Human Rights) * De-personalization of politics/institutiona- lization of politics
 * Drive towards civil society * Rule of law * Democratic state * individuation of society * Authoritarian (absolute) rule
 * Unlimited gov’t * Collective duties * Personal politics * Collective society * Rule of power- holders
 * Authoritarian state * Maintenance of collectivism Intellectual tradition of Old Europe put into practice Magna Carta - 1215 Habeas Corpus
 Glorious Revolution -1688 French Revolution - 1789 Notions of Europe:
 1. Civilizational: “we are the greatest, we should spread our greatness all over the world” WAR, CONQUEST
 2. However, in Europe some of us are greater than others; hence, we should spread greatness across Europe: WAR, INSTABILITY in EUROPE Dialectical Relationship between Old and Europe. The New Europe draws from from the Old one to avoid repeating old problems: war, instability, national hatreds and poverty. 3. We can be great if we cooperate: EUROPEAN INTEGRATION What is Europe?
 A. Matter of geography
 B. Matter of agreement (Russia, Turkey)
 C. Product of social, intellectual and political history Please read the following:
 “Reflection group finds no fixed list of European values” at and
 “In search of Europe's cultural and spiritual values” at The state is:
 1. Territory 2. Population
 3. Sovereign government Definition by Georg Jellinek offered in Allgemeine Staatslehre (1900; "General Theory of the State"). Individualism Au- tho- rit- ari- an liberal demo- cractic Collectivism The main element of change from OLD to NEW Europe is Authority According to Max Weber there are 3 ideal types of authority: A. Traditional B. Charismatic C. Legal In real life the types are mixed: A+B or A+C but NOT B+C. In a democratic society the prevailing type of authority is the A+C combination; in a non- democratic society the prevailing type is A+B. Hence, in the New Europe is A+C; in the Old Europe was A+B RUSSIA:
 HISTORY AND PECULIARITIES OF RUSSIA. 988 Prince Vladimir in Kiev adopted Orthodox Christianity 1453 The capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman empire (Turkey) isolated Russia from its religious roots and from the rest of Europe and, in the end, create its own characteristics. The czar became the secular and religious leader. In Europe, on the other hand, the two were separated and in constant conflict. 1240 Mongol invasion (lasted about 250 years)
 All of this created the concept of Third Rome (Rome, Constantinople, and now Moscow) RESULTS: THE DOMINANCE OF THE STATE (STRONG STATE) state paternalism (czarist paternalism): parent-children no autonomous group activity the lack of societal independent activities week development of representative institutions and society a powerful state bureaucracy bureaucracy to replace politics
 SOCIETAL UNIFORMITY • multinationality
 NO PRIVATE PROPERTY EXPANSIONIST DRIVE: Constant territorial expansion. Peter the Great, Catherine the Great In the nineteenth century alone, Russia engaged in many external military campaigns and successfully 
 expanded in Asia, the Near East, and Europe. The country annexed Georgia, Bessarabia, Finland, Armenia, Turkestan, the Khirghiz Steppe, the Amur River and the Ussuri region, the khanates of Kokand, Bokhara and Khiva and, eventually, the entire Transcaspian region. It waged wars with Persia, Turkey, Sweden, France, China and Japan, confirmed its rule in Poland and intervened in Hungary GREA T RUSSIA 
 As early as 1510, the monk Philoteus, while describing the position and role of the Russian emperor, wrote: Know then, O pious Tsar, that all the orthodox realms have converged in thy single empire. Thou art the only Tsar of the Christians in all the universe. . . . Observe and harken, O pious Tsar. All the Christian empires have converged in thy single one, that two Romes have fallen, but the third stands, and no fourth can ever be. Thy Christian empire shall fall to no one 
 DIALECTIC BETWEEN BACKWARDNESS & MODERNIZATION Alexander I (1801-1825) introduction of modern ministries thinking of constitution • Speransky • educational reforms Nicholas I (1825-1855) Uvarov: Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Nationalism end of university autonomy THE IRON CZAR (Polish uprising) Alexander II (1855-1881) - THE LIBERATOR land reforms: 1860 LIBERATION (EMANCIPATION) ACT peasants freed, but only in theory judicial reforms (the judiciary - separate part of gov’t 1864) Alexander III (1881-1894) curb changes introduced by Alexander II Pobedonostsev Nicholas II (1894-1917) "to preserve and maintain autocracy" - 1894 throne speech establishment of the Duma • THE DUMAS First: 1906 lasted 73 days very limited power over state finances Second: 1907 lasted 102 days bickering and unsuccessful Third 1907-1912 lasted 5 years limited suffrage pro-governmental Forth: 1912-1917 Introductory Class
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