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Political Science

1OilgarchsNormally oilgarchy means is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people These people could be distinguished by royalty wealth family ties corporate or military control Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who pass their influence from one generation to the nextIn this context oligarh mean the Russian Oilgarch after the fall of Soviet UnionThe Privatization process created powerful oligarchs during these period Businessmen with great wealth from these countries were commonly labelled simply oligarchs in Russian regardless of whether they had real political power as the term oligarch would imply Sig PostSoviet business oligarchs include relatives or close associates of government officials even government officials themselves as well as criminal bosses who achieved vast wealth by acquiring state assets very cheaply or for free during the privatization process controlled by the Yeltsin government During Yeltsins presidency oligarchs became increasingly influential in politics and played a significant role in financing the reelection of Yeltsin in 1996 Ex Boris Berezovsky Mikhail Khodorkovsky Alex Konanykhin Mikhail Fridman Vladimir Gusinsky Vitaly Malkin or Vladimir Potanin 2Sinatra Doctrine was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact nations to determine their own internal affairs The name alluded to the Frank Sinatra song My Waythe Soviet Union was allowing these nations to go their own way Sig This was a major break with the earlier Brezhnev Doctrine under which the internal affairs of satellite states were tightly controlled by Moscow This had been used to justify the invasions of Czechoslovakia in 1968 as well as of the nonWarsaw Pact nation of Afghanistan in 1979 By the late 1980s structural flaws within the Soviet system growing economic problems the rise of anticommunist sentiment and the effects of the Afghan war made it increasingly impractical for the Soviet Union to impose its will on its neighbors he proclamation of the Sinatra Doctrine had dramatic effects across the Soviet blocthe announcement of the Sinatra Doctrine signalled that the Soviet Union would not aid the East German communists A few weeks later the Communist governments of East Germany Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria were ousted and two months later the Communist rulers of Romania suffered the same fate signalling an end to the Cold War and to the division of Europe 3The Leading role of The Communist party Sectary General holds the leading role of the communist partywas the title given to the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union With some exceptions the office was synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union In 1922 the office of General Secretary followed as a purely administrative and disciplinary position whose role was to do no more than determine party membership composition Stalin its first incumbent used the principles of democratic centralism to transform his office into that of party leader and later leader of the Soviet Union1 In 1934 the 17th Party Congress did not elect a General Secretary and Stalin was an ordinary secretary until his death in 1953 although he remained the de facto leader without diminishing his own authority4August Coup was an attempt by a group of members of the Soviet Unions government to take control of the country from Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev The coup leaders were hardline members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union CPSU who were opposed to Gorbachevs reform program and the new union treaty that he had negotiated which decentralised much of the central governments power to the republics They were opposed mainly in Moscow by a short but effective campaign of civil resistance Sig Since assuming power in 1985 Gorbachev had embarked on an ambitious program of reform embodied in the twin concepts of perestroika and glasnost meaning economicpolitical restructuring and openness respectively5 These moves prompted resistance and suspicion on the part of hardline members of the establishment The reforms also unleashed some forces and movements that Gorbachev did not expect Although the coup collapsed in only two days and Gorbachev returned to government the event destabilised the Soviet Union and is widely considered to have contributed to both the demise of the CPSU and the dissolution of the Soviet Union 5Bolsevieksmeans the majority in Russian were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party RSDLP which split apart from the Menshevik faction3 at the Second Party Congress in 1903 The Bolsheviks were the majority faction in a crucial vote hence their name They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic which would later in 1922 become the chief constituent of the Soviet Union The Bolsheviks founded by Vladimir Lenin were by 1905 a mass organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism Bolshevik revolutionary leader Leon Trotsky commonly used the terms Bolshevism and Bolshevist after his exile from the Soviet Union to differentiate between what he saw as true Leninism and the state and party as they existed under Stalins leadership 6Leonard Breznev was the General Secretary of the Central Committee CC of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union CPSU presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982 His eighteenyear term as General Secretary was second only to that of Joseph Stalin in length During Brezhnevs rule the global influence of the Soviet Union grew dramatically in part because of the expansion of the Soviet military during this time but his tenure as leader has often been criticised for marking the beginning of a period of economic stagnation overlooking serious economic problems which eventually led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 Brezhnev took care to consult his colleagues before acting but his attempt to govern without meaningful economic reforms led to a national decline by the mid1970s a period referred to as the Era of Stagnation A significant increase in military expenditures which by the time of Brezhnevs death stood at approximately 50 of the countrys GNP and an increasingly elderly and ineffective leadership set the stage for a dwindling GNP compared to Western economy
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