POLA90 – Lecture Week 2 (first lecture) Notes
Definition of Corruption
- Dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery (Oxford
- Generally thought of as resulting in the misuse of public office for private gain
Definition of Violence
- Behaviour involving physical force intending…
- Increased interest in international issues
- The perception* that the scale of problems of corruption and violence are growing
- Perceived to have a catastrophic effect on ‘governance’ – an international buzzword for
effectiveness of the system
- Both perceived to have serious consequences for human development and growth
- * can reveal a lot about workings of social, economic, and especially political systems
- Corruption and violence are NOT causes but CONSEQUENCES of problems due to
social, economic and political levels (approach taken in this course) although you can go
Human development (socio-economic development) versus economic development
Costa Rica – good human development without strong economic power
- Perception that the phenomenon is growing.
- Rising interest of major international institutions and leaders (UN, WB, G8, OECD etc.)
- Formulation of laws and conventions against corruption
- Establishment of several global anti-corruption civil society organizations
- Emergence of grass-roots anti-corruption campaigns (John Githonga* in Kenya, Anna
Hazare* in India, etc.)
Growing Scale of Corruption Problem?
Global Outlaws book by Carolyn Nordstrom argues:
- Global informal economy = $ trillions - 20% of worlds deposits in off-shore banks
- Money laundering = 2.5% of global GDP
- World Bank estimates that bribes = $1.5 trillion/year
UN Convention against corruption (10 anniversary)
December 9 is Anti-Corruption Day
The rise of global anti-corruption civil society organizations like:
Transparency International, Global Witness
- Similar ‘perceptions’ that violence is increasing in the world…
- Pinker writes of a “new pessimism” with respect to three manifestations of violence
- A. civil wars.
- B. genocide.
- C. Terrorism
- * These three phenomenon within polities that are in transition. Violence peaked when
colonialization ended. Transitions from one political system to another.
These countries had weaker institutions. Creating openings for a variety of alternate forms of