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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Paul Kingston

P a g e | 1 1. Corruption - Pinker writes of a “new pessimism” with respect to three manifestations of violence: - Dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery o Civil wars - Result of misuse of public office for private o Genocides (mass murder of a certain gain group) - Types of corruption: o Terrorism o Dash – the first form and least harmful - Usually happens to countries undergoing a or offensive type of corruption transition from one political system to - Includes bribes, presents and another favours in exchange of - Violence and corruption causes the something unlawful or harmful creation of non-accountable networks of by nature power called “shadow networks” which then leads to the weakening or destruction o Money Politics(Corporate of a political system Corruption) – the use of money to influence the selection of leaders of the - V&C are both poisons to economic growth state and policies for private profit - Negative effects on people: less income for interests household, less support to poor - The people in control of a communities resulting to a fall in human country’s economy (wealthiest development businessmen) try to take over the political system - V&C “kills” o Gulp – the kinds of corruption where 1. States, regimes and government state policies are chosen for the a. State - basic institutions of a monetary benefit they will bestow political system upon officials and their patrons, in a great magnitude that the country - indicates the raw power or the “infrastructural power” of the state suffers. - a state’s hardware a. Mango Corruption – the economic system still operates - ex. Police, schools, postal office upon what economists style a virtuous model while corrupt IDEAL NOT IDEAL (WEAK) ministers steal what they can with 1. Distinct from regime and 1. Weak only small effects government “rational-legal” b. Baobab Corruption – corruption (clear division of roles order is the object of government. The and responsibilities) (having “blurred” political system is designed for corruption purposes roles and lines of authority) 2. Pinker on the decline in global levels of violence 2. Coercive power 2. Central to questions of power - Violence - behaviour involving physical (having a monopoly over the use of violence) force intended to hurt, damage or kill someone or something 3. Infrastructural 3. Overdeveloped power - According to Pinker, violence is declining P a g e | 2 (having control over a defined (more institutions of and territories, which then called for territory and people) control than political technological innovations for more representation effective weaponry. And since war is extremely expensive, only a few 4.Legitimacy/Rational-legal 4. Being “captured” by detested the most powerful one. power particular groups with interests not involving 6. State capacity and legitimacy (having a centralized set of ‘rule-bound’ institutions) the society as a whole a. State capacity – the ability of a state to 5.Having capacity 5. paradoxically effectively administrate its territory “strong” or “weak” through different levels of infrastructural (ability to do the basic power tasks) i. Origins (organic/imposed) 6. Sovereignty 6. Having weak (domestic/international/legal) internal/external ii. Regimes (authoritarian/democratic) sovereignty iii. Power distribution (centralized/decentralized) b. Regimes – indicates how the “raw iv. Legitimacy power” is organized around set of v. Autonomy fundamental rules b. State legitimacy – the authority of a - the software of the state state to implement rules - the type of government that sets i. Traditional – authority through the type of rules traditional or historical customs - ex. Bill of Rights, the Constitution ii. Charismatic – authority based on the ‘charisma’ or appeal of a c. Governments – indicates how power leader to its constituents is used iii. Rational-legal – authority - The administration or the set based on set of rules and of people that has the ability policies enforced by the law to manifest “power” 7. Colonial political legacies in Global South - ex. President, Prime - Creating the preconditions Minister for the emergence of the 4. Infrastructural power of states – the power weak states of the state to control over a certain territory and group of people a. Imposed states on many parts of the developing world 5. Charles tilly on state formation in Europe i. States are created by external Tilly argues that war or violence give processes rather than internal birth the state. He theorized that processes where power and Europe’s state began initially by line of authority and legitimacy winning wars against other competitors. is held in a global scale The more they win, the more powerful they become. Winning also gave the b. Underlying coercive nature to the political order winner sovereignty over resources (through predatory extraction), people P a g e | 3 i. Creation of strong coercive c. Developing a political apparatus - institutions (i.e. police) purpose is to reduce institutional gaps between state and societies by: ii. Extraction of resources and order i. creating a new constitution iii. Creation of political allegiance ii. political parties (parties) involving traditional, local leaders that possess the iii. holding elections same regime the colonizers iv. launching campaigns to promote have the legitimacy of the state c. Promotion of uneven economic *Although there’s a significant success in most development of these goals, states often remained controlled by a certain elite group which i. Agricultural over industry sparked a competition between other elite ii. Imbalanced proportions of groups and fragmentation of resources. economic focus However, the mass participation of the people becomes widespread which threatened the iii. Weak development of middle and working class elites. The also economy stayed unstable. d. Legacy of weak political/representative 9. Clientelism (patron-client relations) institutions - A system where in it involves three actors: e. Divide and rule tactics exacerbated o Patron (electorate) - the people who are to social fragmentation elect i. Many groups are included o Agent (politician) – the person who is running within one state, where some of for a position in the government them were divided into different states o Client (usually wealthy business personnel) – supporter or financer of the agent ii. Colonial preference given to - The client will give support (usually in form certain groups over others iii. Colonies “invent” a different of money/resources) to the agent. Once the agent gets into office, he then gives ethnic out of the pre-existing back the resources (monopoly over certain ethnics (divide and rule tactic) products, titles, money, etc) he obtained from the patron. 8. Post-colonial state formation – the modernization project - Bargains/Exchanges are informal/illegal a. Developing the state apparatus – and ‘voluntary’ but also usually unequal, increasing the infrastructural power often done with coercive threats b. Promoting economic development i. Concentrate on national control ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGES over economic resources S ii. Developing economic Mechanisms Discourages rational and of planned use of resources sovereignty and promote social representation integration Can serve to Demobilizes people by links the essentially
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