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Political Science
Paul Kingston

Zeitgist – a general set of beliefs of a particular CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION culture at a specific time in history. Psychology – the scientific study of behavior, thought, and experience. Materialism – the belief that humans, and other living beings are composed exclusively of physical Scientific method – a way of learning about the matter. world through collecting observations, developing - Humans are like wired machines theories to explain them, and using the theories to Dualism – Human is half machine, half soul. make prediction. Hypothesis – a testable prediction about - There are properties of humans that processes that can be observed and measured. are not material. Gustav Fechner (1801-1887) *A testable hypothesis is one that can be confirmed - Worked on sensations and perceptions or rejected. YOU DO NOT PROVE A - Coined the term “psychophysics” HYPOTHESIS. - Experiment on quarter pound weights Pseudoscience – ideas that are presented as on two hands science but do not actually utilize basic principles of Psychophysics – the study of the relationship scientific thinking or procedure. between the physical world and the mental Theory – an explanation for a broad range of representation of that world. observations that also generates new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent Charles Darwin (1809-1882) whole. - Behavior and emotional expression are Must be falsifiable shaped by natural selection Biopsycosocial model – a means of explaining behavior as a product of biological, psychological, Natural selection (Theory of evolution) - Female species tend to choose the and sociocultural factors. male specie that have inherited traits essential for Scientific Literacy – the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information. survival and reproductive success, thus affecting a. Knowledge fathering the population breed b. Scientific Explanation Artificial selection – creation of new breeds of c. Critical Thinking specie (ex. Sheep dogs) d. Application Clinical psychology – concentrates on the  STUDYING TECHNIQUES 1. Massing – breaks the pile into smaller diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders groups and reading each pile separately. 2. Spacing – reading the cards one by one Brain localization – the idea that certain parts of the brain control specific bodily functions and • Spacing is more effective than massing. personality characteristics. Critical Thinking – exercising curiosity and Franz Gall (1758-1828) & Johann skepticism when evaluating the claims of others Spurzheim91776-1832) and our own assumptions and beliefs. Principle of Parsimony – the simplest of all - Popularized phrenology. competing explanations of a phenomenon should Phrenology - The brain that is consisted of 27 be the one we accept. “organs” corresponding to mental traits and Essentialism – a human tendency to ascribe dispositions could be detected by examining the significance to certain instances of some objects surface of the skull. but not to others  FUNDAMENTAL BELIEFS IN SCIENCE Paul Broca – physician who localized the part of 1. Empiricism – a philosophixcal tenet the brain (now called Broca’s area) responsible for that knowledge comes through speech production with the help of his patient Tan experience. 2. Determinism – the belief that all events Karl Wernicke – localized the area of the brain for speech recognition (meaning of words) are governed by lawful, cause-and- effect relationships. Psychosomatic Medicine – “cures” that treat patients due to high belief in the treatment. Edward Titchener – devised an organized map of Franz Mesmer – believed that prolonged exposure the structure of human consciousness to magnets could redirect the metallic fluids in the Structuralism – an attempt to analyze conscious body, thus treating disease and insanity experience by breaking it down into BASIC - First to use hypnosis on treating patients ELEMENTS, and to understand how these elements work together. Sigmeund Freud (1856-1939) - Popularized the use of hypnosis on William James – wrote the first textbook in treatment Psychology – The Principles of Psychology – - Formulated his famous theory published in 1890. psychoanalysis Functionalism – study of the PURPOSE AND Psychoanalysis – a psychological approach that FUNCTION of behavior and conscious experience. attempts to explain how behavior and personality are influenced by UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSES Evolutionary Psychology – interprets and (perceptions, thoughts, a sense of self, sense of explains modern human behavior in terms of forces self-control) acting upon our distant ancestors - Our brains and behaviors have been Sir Francis Galton – heredity/genetics explains shaped by the physical and social environment that our psychological differences among people our ancestors encountered. - Coined the nature and nurture relationships but focused on the nature (biological) Professor Edwin Twitmyer – did an experiment in side reflexes - Promoted the belief that social - Bell and a rubber mallet experiment programs should encourage intelligent, talented individuals to have children and keep the criminals, Behaviorism – dominated the first half of 20 th people with mental/physical disabilities, and non- century of American Psychology white people out of the English gene pool. - Studying only observable behavior, with - Biggest promoter of RACISM!!!! little or no reference to mental events or - Started the use of statistical instincts as possible influences on methods to measure and study behavior and behavior. mental processes Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Eminence – a combination of ability, morality and - Received the Nobel Prize and credit of achievement discovering classical conditioning - Experimented dogs’ salivation in a tone Nature and Nurture Relationships – the inquiry on how heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) John B. Watson – credited for the rise of influence behavior and mental processes behaviorism - Behavior can be explained through Eugenics – literally translates “good genes” conditioning Biological Psychology – seeks to explain the B.F. Skinner – behavior psychologist underlying genetic, physiological and brain basis for - studied how rewards affect behavior behavior. - inventor of the Skinner box Cognitive neuroscience – examines relationships Humanistic Psychology – focuses on the unique between thoughts and brain functions. aspects of each individual human and the belief that human is different from animals Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) - Advocates free will - Established the first laboratory - Sought to understand the meaning of dedicated to studying human behavior personal experiences - Father of experimental psychology) - Research is on introspection, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow – humanistic meaning “to look within” psychologists Health Psychology – the study of how individual, European -> focused on thinking biological and environmental factors affect physical American -> focused on what could be directly health. studied Industrial and Organizational Psychology (I/O) – a branch of applied psychology in which Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) psychologists work for businesses and other - German psychologist who produced the organizations to improve employee productivity and reams of data on remembering and the organizational structure of the company or forgetting business. - Formulated the “forgetting curves” Environmental Psychology – study factors that Frederick Bartlett – illustrated that memory is an improve working and living conditions. interpretative process that involves cultural knowledge. CHAPTER 2 – SCIENTIFIC Gestalt Psychology – an approach emphasizing RESEARCH that psychologists need to focus on the WHOLE of Objectivity – the single most important aspect of perception and EXPERIENCE RATHER THAN ITS scientific research PARTS. - Assumes that certain facts about the Gestalt – German word for the complete form of an world can be observed and tested independently object. from the individual who describes them Cognitive Psychology – focuses on processes such Subjective – their knowledge of the event is shaped by prior beliefs, expectations, experiences, as memory, thinking, and language. even their mood. Norman Triplett – experiments focusing on how other people influence can individual behavior  CRITERIAS OF A QUALITY SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Social and Personality Psychology – the study of 1. Based on objective, valid and reliable influence of other people on our behavior along measurements. with what makes each individual unique. 2. Can be generalized 3. Uses techniques that reduces bias Kurt Lewin – founder of social psychology 4. Made public - B = f(I,E)
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