Zeitgist – a general set of beliefs of a particular
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION culture at a specific time in history.
Psychology – the scientific study of behavior,
thought, and experience. Materialism – the belief that humans, and other
living beings are composed exclusively of physical
Scientific method – a way of learning about the matter.
world through collecting observations, developing - Humans are like wired machines
theories to explain them, and using the theories to Dualism – Human is half machine, half soul.
Hypothesis – a testable prediction about - There are properties of humans that
processes that can be observed and measured. are not material.
Gustav Fechner (1801-1887)
*A testable hypothesis is one that can be confirmed - Worked on sensations and perceptions
or rejected. YOU DO NOT PROVE A - Coined the term “psychophysics”
- Experiment on quarter pound weights
Pseudoscience – ideas that are presented as on two hands
science but do not actually utilize basic principles of Psychophysics – the study of the relationship
scientific thinking or procedure. between the physical world and the mental
Theory – an explanation for a broad range of representation of that world.
observations that also generates new hypotheses
and integrates numerous findings into a coherent Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
whole. - Behavior and emotional expression are
Must be falsifiable shaped by natural selection
Biopsycosocial model – a means of explaining
behavior as a product of biological, psychological, Natural selection (Theory of evolution)
- Female species tend to choose the
and sociocultural factors. male specie that have inherited traits essential for
Scientific Literacy – the ability to understand,
analyze, and apply scientific information. survival and reproductive success, thus affecting
a. Knowledge fathering the population breed
b. Scientific Explanation
Artificial selection – creation of new breeds of
c. Critical Thinking specie (ex. Sheep dogs)
Clinical psychology – concentrates on the
1. Massing – breaks the pile into smaller diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
groups and reading each pile separately.
2. Spacing – reading the cards one by one Brain localization – the idea that certain parts of
the brain control specific bodily functions and
• Spacing is more effective than massing. personality characteristics.
Critical Thinking – exercising curiosity and Franz Gall (1758-1828) & Johann
skepticism when evaluating the claims of others Spurzheim91776-1832)
and our own assumptions and beliefs.
Principle of Parsimony – the simplest of all - Popularized phrenology.
competing explanations of a phenomenon should
Phrenology - The brain that is consisted of 27
be the one we accept. “organs” corresponding to mental traits and
Essentialism – a human tendency to ascribe dispositions could be detected by examining the
significance to certain instances of some objects surface of the skull.
but not to others
FUNDAMENTAL BELIEFS IN SCIENCE Paul Broca – physician who localized the part of
1. Empiricism – a philosophixcal tenet the brain (now called Broca’s area) responsible for
that knowledge comes through speech production with the help of his patient Tan
2. Determinism – the belief that all events Karl Wernicke – localized the area of the brain for
speech recognition (meaning of words)
are governed by lawful, cause-and-
effect relationships. Psychosomatic Medicine – “cures” that treat
patients due to high belief in the treatment. Edward Titchener – devised an organized map of
Franz Mesmer – believed that prolonged exposure the structure of human consciousness
to magnets could redirect the metallic fluids in the Structuralism – an attempt to analyze conscious
body, thus treating disease and insanity experience by breaking it down into BASIC
- First to use hypnosis on treating patients ELEMENTS, and to understand how these
elements work together.
Sigmeund Freud (1856-1939)
- Popularized the use of hypnosis on William James – wrote the first textbook in
treatment Psychology – The Principles of Psychology –
- Formulated his famous theory published in 1890.
Functionalism – study of the PURPOSE AND
Psychoanalysis – a psychological approach that FUNCTION of behavior and conscious experience.
attempts to explain how behavior and personality
are influenced by UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSES Evolutionary Psychology – interprets and
(perceptions, thoughts, a sense of self, sense of explains modern human behavior in terms of forces
self-control) acting upon our distant ancestors
- Our brains and behaviors have been
Sir Francis Galton – heredity/genetics explains shaped by the physical and social environment that
our psychological differences among people our ancestors encountered.
- Coined the nature and nurture
relationships but focused on the nature (biological) Professor Edwin Twitmyer – did an experiment in
- Promoted the belief that social - Bell and a rubber mallet experiment
programs should encourage intelligent, talented
individuals to have children and keep the criminals, Behaviorism – dominated the first half of 20 th
people with mental/physical disabilities, and non- century of American Psychology
white people out of the English gene pool. - Studying only observable behavior, with
- Biggest promoter of RACISM!!!! little or no reference to mental events or
- Started the use of statistical instincts as possible influences on
methods to measure and study behavior and behavior.
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Eminence – a combination of ability, morality and - Received the Nobel Prize and credit of
achievement discovering classical conditioning
- Experimented dogs’ salivation in a tone
Nature and Nurture Relationships – the inquiry
on how heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) John B. Watson – credited for the rise of
influence behavior and mental processes behaviorism
- Behavior can be explained through
Eugenics – literally translates “good genes” conditioning
Biological Psychology – seeks to explain the B.F. Skinner – behavior psychologist
underlying genetic, physiological and brain basis for - studied how rewards affect behavior
behavior. - inventor of the Skinner box
Cognitive neuroscience – examines relationships Humanistic Psychology – focuses on the unique
between thoughts and brain functions. aspects of each individual human and the belief
that human is different from animals
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) - Advocates free will
- Established the first laboratory - Sought to understand the meaning of
dedicated to studying human behavior personal experiences
- Father of experimental psychology)
- Research is on introspection, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow – humanistic
meaning “to look within” psychologists Health Psychology – the study of how individual,
European -> focused on thinking biological and environmental factors affect physical
American -> focused on what could be directly health.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology (I/O) –
a branch of applied psychology in which
Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) psychologists work for businesses and other
- German psychologist who produced the organizations to improve employee productivity and
reams of data on remembering and the organizational structure of the company or
- Formulated the “forgetting curves”
Environmental Psychology – study factors that
Frederick Bartlett – illustrated that memory is an improve working and living conditions.
interpretative process that involves cultural
knowledge. CHAPTER 2 – SCIENTIFIC
Gestalt Psychology – an approach emphasizing RESEARCH
that psychologists need to focus on the WHOLE of
Objectivity – the single most important aspect of
perception and EXPERIENCE RATHER THAN ITS scientific research
- Assumes that certain facts about the
Gestalt – German word for the complete form of an world can be observed and tested independently
object. from the individual who describes them
Cognitive Psychology – focuses on processes such Subjective – their knowledge of the event is
shaped by prior beliefs, expectations, experiences,
as memory, thinking, and language. even their mood.
Norman Triplett – experiments focusing on how
other people influence can individual behavior CRITERIAS OF A QUALITY SCIENTIFIC
Social and Personality Psychology – the study of 1. Based on objective, valid and reliable
influence of other people on our behavior along measurements.
with what makes each individual unique. 2. Can be generalized
3. Uses techniques that reduces bias
Kurt Lewin – founder of social psychology 4. Made public
- B = f(I,E)