POL90H – Possible Terms and Concepts for Final Exam…
• refer to definitions of the concepts
• maybe challenges/unexpected complications
• significance with other concepts of the course
The challenges of security sector reform
• challenges of demilitarization can be closely related
• unintended consequences when you focus primarily on those who were fighting
• specific challenges, DDR, in the context of the Congo
Responsibility to protect doctrine (R2P)
• Astate has a responsibility to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity,
and ethnic cleansing.
• The international community has a responsibility to assist the state to fulfill its primary responsibility.
• If the state manifestly fails to protect its citizens from the four above mass atrocities and peaceful measures
have failed, the international community has the responsibility to intervene through coercive measures such
as economic sanctions. Military intervention is considered the last resort.
• focus in post-conflict situations
• makes conflicts worse in the long run because it solidifies differences
Elections in post-conflict societies
• Refer to “Transforming the Institutions of War: Post-Conflict Elections and the Reconstruction of Failed
States”, ill make notes after
‘Spoilers’within post-conflict societies
• Spoiler to peace building, can be extremist groups that do not want to negotiate with the other side.
• Spoilers to nation building projects, can be people who profit from war.
• People who either want to continue to fight or ruin the process towards peace
Ottaway on the “democratic construction” model
• Routinely used by the international community to build a durable peace
• Assumes that democratic systems provide methods towards reconciliation and guarantees lasting peace
• Based on studies/reports of organizations and what they claim to be (but sometimes are not) doing in post-
• The problem to be solved:
o Need for internal intervention in post-conflict countries to stabilize the situation
o Prevent the recurrence of conflict. o The international community can’t be called upon to handle the scope of these interventions.
• As originally implemented, the democratic reconstruction model was a relatively simple affair. It consisted
of two major pieces:
o on the military side, demobilization of the former combatants, some provisions for their
resettlement into civilian life, and the formation of a new national army
o on the political side, the structuring of a democratic system, including the drafting and approval of
a constitution, the enactment of the necessary laws on political parties and elections, the
registration of voters and ﬁnally the holding of multiparty elections
UN Peace Building Operations after the Cold War
Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) in the Democratic Republic of Congo
• The demilitarisation of Congolese armed groups has been a difﬁcult and complex process, as it attempts to
link demilitarisation with integration into the national army. The DDR programme has three main
■ Transfer of weapons from combatants to MONUC and ﬁ nally to the FARDC
■ Giving former combatants the option either to be integrated into the FARDC or reintegrated into civilian
■ Changing the FARDC’s main function to be the fostering of national security
• The DDR process begins at the transit site where the identity of the combatant is veriﬁed and weapons are
handed over.After the veriﬁ cation process, combatants receive a certiﬁ cate of demobilisation and enter an
orientation centre. During orientation, which lasts for three to four days, combatants are provided with
sensitisation training and have to make the crucial decision of whether they want to integrate into the
national army or return to civilian life.
Making conflict unprofitable
• assumption is that fundamentally these conflicts are about access to resources
• regulating the trade of natural resources, timber, diamond, copper
The US Occupation of Haiti
• Saddled with crippling debts, Haiti was hardly able to move forward.
• There were military conflicts between rivals for power within Haiti - local revolts, rebellions, and border
wars with the Dominican Republic.
• U.S. economic power and influence grew in the nineteenth century,
• By the 1910s, this influence was symbolized by HASCO, The Haitian-American Sugar Company.
• In 1915, the U.S. Marines invaded Haiti.As always, the U.S.
cited local politics and concerns for its business interests.
• The U.S. privatized the National Bank, re-instituted forced labour, tied resistance leader Charlemagne
Peralte's body to a door and circulated the photograph.
• When the Marines left 19 years later in 1934, the U.S. reserved a 'special role' for itself. • The U.S. leftbehind two military forces for use against the population, the
• 'gendarmerie' and the National Guard, which evolved into the HaitianArmy
(renamed Forces Armees D'Haiti, or FADH, in 1958).
Collier on violence and democracy
• In countries in the bottom billion, reform is better than democracy. Democracy better in rich states as
oppose to poor states.
• accountability and legitimacy factors in political violence.
• Accountability: In a democracy a government has to perform sufficiently well or it won't get reelected. Less
grievance means less political violence.
• Legitimacy: Legitimate government has a mandate on what it said it would do. Citizens agree to these rules
so the government’s elected program cannot legitimately extend to the use of violence.
• The political regime mattered more in poor countries as oppose to democracy, as democracy
works better in rich countries. At low income, democracy increased political violence.
• Countries that had at least middle income levels, democracy systematically reduced the risk of
• Try to purge potentially dangerous people before they act. If leaders could no longer mount
preemptive purges they might be less able to keep the lid on political violence. Purge effect that
increased political violence. Democracy makes purging more difficult.
• 7 options on retaining power in a democracy
• -Turn over a new leaf and become a good government, lie to electors, scapegoat a minority,
bribery, intimidation, restrict the field to exclude the strongest candidates, miscount the votes.
Menkhaus on the prospects for a ‘mediated state’in Somalia
• mediated state - a state with limited power with the sole role to perform the function that local authorities
cannot perform like giving passports, representing the country, and act as a mediator between the local
• an umbrella arching over existing authorities
• a Solution to what’s happening in Somalia
• 2 main reasons for why this mediated state is the best case scenario in Somalia
• somalia is a very resource poor country
• there is a plethora of competing local authorities
• these two attributes are fit quite perfectly of what makes a strong state vs. weak state
• state capacity
• less ambitious than power sharing
• benefits given to local authorities that govern “well” and a punishment mechanism for those who govern
“wrongly” • Mediated state is much easier than eradicating all of these authorities
Fatton on democratization in Haiti
• Democratization eliminate