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POLC71H3 (52)

POLB71; lecture notes.docx

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Political Science
Margaret Kohn

LEC01 Key themes Paradox of the stateHow do you prevent the state from becoming despoticLimit government rule of law and individual rightsPopular sovereigntyBalance of power Why start with Franciscus de Victoria Theorized about the significance of the conquest of the Americas Modernity begins in 1492 Founder of international law Not found in broad view anthology Writes about experience or events that mark the beginning of the new world After 1492 we get a geographical sense of the entire globe Why start with the conquest of the Americas Beginning of globalization Turning point in the growth of European domination Sparks debates about cultural difference and domination Eurocentrism All of our texts are created by Europeans possible source of all knowledge From Bartoleme de Las Casa Bried Account of the Devastation of the Indies 1542 Bloody conquest Dominican monkOwner of indigenous slaves Come to realize that kind of slavery was immoral Became one of the foremost critics for slavery Had a legal fight to help protect Indians from slavery and exploitation by the Spanish crown in order to influence he wrote about what he saw about their exploitation and such Talks about Christians because it was so hypocritical Supposed to represent peace and love but actually very brutalCannibalism or ritual sacrifice Indigenous society are seen as uncivilized and barbaricSpanish are said to be there to make them more civilized but in reality their role were switched How could the conquest be justified Religion the medieval concept of the universal Christian commonwealth Based in scripture These concepts of unity and hierarchy were used to justify papal authority Pope had ultimate authority Christianity was state religion in roman empireRome was under threat from invasionsCapital fled from rome Military threat came from northern Europe Pope stayed in romeContinued to grow Political authority vs religious authoritySecular vs religiousDifferent alliances in order to gain power How could the popes spiritual leadership come to justify military power against nonchristiansThe Crusades Military campaigns to capture Jerusalem Main justification is to defend the Popes spiritual authority over the Christian community Tradition in visiting religious sites By going to middle east and taking over land they would have the opportunity for economic improvement in life Improving economy and lifestyle modern idea Limits on Papal Power Social contract theory hobbes locke Natural law St Thomas Aquinas
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