POLC73 - Lec #4 - Oct. 2nd, 2012
Objection: Manner should be temperate (619)
Who gets to decide?
Powerful, convincing arguments seem interperate to the other side.
Both sides should refrain from sarcasm, ad hominem attacks, etc.
Should there be limitations on free speech?
Blasphemy? Hate speech?
Think about the Dixie Chicks and what had happened to them. Should that have been limited?
Value of Liberty
Individuality as a primary value
Against conformity: "Human faculties of perception, judgement, discriminative feeling, mental
activity, and even moral preference are exercised only in making a choice." (621)
The mass is a threat to individuality
"The despotism of custom is everywhere the standing hindrance to human advancement." (627)
"Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong when they tend to
produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain."
Modifies doctrine to take into account higher and lower pleasures.
Act VS. Rule Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism and Liberty
Mill claims, "It is proper to state that I forgo any advantage which could be derived to my
argument from the idea of abstract right, as a thing independent of utility. I regard utility as the
ultimate appeal on all ethical questions..." (5