POLC88 – Lecture 3 on May 30 2011
International Integration is a part of the security dilemma.
Last week’s discussion on International Organization as an alternative to calming down nations with a
security dilemma such as in Kuwait and Iraq case where diplomacy could have been used.
States are actually coming together and making a sub-sovereign unit that acts separately than nations.
Not easy to define but we are mostly concerned with interconnectedness – international division of
labor, specific resources endowments. Countries are trying to figure out how to put sovereignty aside
and transfer these resources internationally, putting all other selfish ideas aside.
Example given for networking in university – similar to globalization internationally
Institutions of Globalization:
International organizations, MNC’s, Information.
States are having a hard time protecting their sovereignty especially in the developing world. Example
Nigeria has numerous NGOs and it cannot “protect” itself from it.
EU countries give away their sovereignty. This is beneficial for them mostly.
It used to be that political leaders could do anything they wanted but the recent cases of Moamar
Gaddafi and Radovan Mladic show that international organizations are able to issue warrants, etc
against such leaders.
Outsourcing projects the ease that has been established within the global economy - Bringing costs
down and ensuring efficiency and effectiveness in the international sector.
International banking, credit cards that are doing a lot that we don’t notice.
High quality goods are available at a cheaper price.
Investors are able to sell and get more jobs. Improvements brought about by globalization.
Societal Globalization: People are more linked with common interests and ideas rather than national interests – e.g. meeting
Threatening family bonds with internet networking
Anti-globalization movements - Anytime you hear of a G-8 summit you hear of protests. A special
identity has been carved that brings them together against these institutions of globalization. This
changes how states are behaving.
Fusing together, coming together – the world is moving towards that new integration.
States are pushing their sovereignty up to a supranational institution.
The ultimate is the merger into a single state or world government. What we are seeing now is some
kind of federation (such as EU).
Roadblocks – how about a state like Greece that has been bailed out at such a huge magnitude, where
an institution is telling you exactly what to do – EU. So complete sovereignty reaches these roadblocks
where states have been overpowered. It is a long process but it is somewhat underway in EU where
countries are already enjoying the same currency and policy making.
Mercusor – Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay. They are doing the same thing as EU has done.
Purpose of International Integration:
Possibly form a federation of states. The US is run where states are controlled by the Federal
Government with state autonomy as well. The EU is attempting the same.
Theory of Integration:
Functionalism: Interrelated and integrated parts to form a complete whole.
Division of labor – states have their own unique capabilities – In this case we are better off merging
these capabilities so that the whole enjoys.
If we have a supranational organization that takes care of all the coordination and organizational
responsibilities, we will be better off rather than leaving them to work on their own.
Initially we were talking about functionalism, but we will be able to get even more when we setup
political institutions to drive this