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Political Science
R Rice

L7. POST DEVELOPMENT THEORY - I. Assumptions - II. Prescriptions for Change - III. Contributions & Criticisms - IV. The Question of Alternatives - Critical theory: oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole, rather than just trying to explain and understand it. - Characteristics shared by these theorists: - 1.Reflexive- recognizes that western society is only one possible form of society. (other possibilities) - 2.Understand knowledge as possible-discourse is power over the south - 3.Decentering- it is from the point of view of those who have been marginalized. - 4.Transdisciplinary- cross over with literature, cultural studies,women’s studies etc. - 5.Subversive.- challenge accepted wisdom. - I. Assumptions - Arturo Escobar (1995) “the making and unmaking of the third world” - looks at Columbia - Before outsiders came to Columbia, there was no such thing as poverty, and no need for development. - By imposing external norms, the country was interpreted as lacking devel- opment - Poverty and development are inventions from the North imposed on the South. - Post development theory suggest that development has helped to incorpo- rate large areas of the globe into a northern dominated economic and politi- cal system, which has destroyed indigenous cultures, threatened the envi- ronment and created feelings of inferiority among people of the South. - 1.Development is a tool of western hegemony: it imposes western thinking and discourse about how the world should be. AKA neocolonialism - 2.Development is the problem not the solution. - People should be free to choose the way they want to live without being made to feel inferior. 0. The discourse of development reflects prevailing power relations. - Unequal relations of power allow some ideas of development to be presented as correct, while others are dismissed. 4.Alternatives to development- i.e. Grassroots, sustainable develop. Alterna- tive development approaches only serve to extend the life of the project of development. (development: the devil we know) - II. Prescriptions for Change - “think and act locally” focus on local views and actions. - Real grassroots participation-that participation should mean something. - Focus on what communities want, we can acknowledge what ordinary peo- ple are actually doing, rather than what they should be doing. - Decolonization of the mind-empty ourselves of our preconceived notions of what development should be. PART II - III. Contributions & Criticisms - Contributions - Offers a damning critique of mainstream development / highlights the fail- ures if development, lessons learned. - Criticisms - Homogenize “developments” as if it is why Eurocentric modernization-style development. - Criticizes current policies and theories without providing any alternatives model of resistant rather than one of emancipating. - It is not theoretically developed. - Post development scholars refuse to recognize any development success stories. - Do not discuss the material improvements/ benefits of development. - Romanticizes local traditions and poverty. ← - IV. The Question of Alternatives - Allow each society ti develop its own model for development based on its own cultural values and perspectives. (however every society has different values-so who do we include?) Final - 1. What are critical theories? How do they compare to the grande narratives on development? - 2. What are the major assumptions of post development theory? Do you agree with them? - 3. According to Matthews, what might an alternative to development look like? L8 - Fanin, Said-post colonialism - Frantz Fanon (1925-1941)-psychology of colonialism - Psychiatric medicine and philosophy - 1953-Algeria - Become involved in the independence struggle in algeria against france - Exiled from algeria - Violence as a cleansing force, as a means of regaining dignity and starting fresh. 1)Search for identity - Black skin, white masks (1952) - Colonialism with its explicit conceptual underpinnings of white racial superi- ority created a sense of division and alientation in the south identity of those colonized. - Psychological colonialism or “internalized colonization” - The west is everywhere 2)struggle against colonialism - history: involves the claiming or taking back of history by the colonized from the negative or non existent versions of it produced by the colonizers - The wretched of the Earth (1961) 3)the process of decolonization - the importance of newly independent nations to develop new social institu- tions and systems rather than utilize existing colonial institutions. - Inherently racist. - Continues to transmit the beliefs, values of the colonizers. Edward Said (1935-2003) - Knowledge/power - Orientalism (1978) - North African Arab + Middle Eastern peoples + cultures - Orient-any country east of Europe - Orient signifies a system of representation formed by political forces that brought the Orient into western learning, consciousness and empire. - Orientalism: project of knowledge construction. It is the domination restruc- turing and authority over the Orient by the west. - Oriental: the person represented by such thinking. - Said proposed that the two invisible foundations of imperial authority were knowledge and power. - By knowing the orient, the West came to own it. II: Assumptions - Colonial discourse and orientalism perpetuate the representation of coloniz- ers as superior to the colonized - H
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