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Lecture 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Judith Teichman

POLC91 Oct. 18, 2012 Lecture 6 Latin America in the 19C – Concluded Challenges to Oligarchical Rule -Challenges to oligarchical rule was very prevalent in the southern cone; Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil -olig’s didn’t disappear, they just allowed new groups into the political system -they remained as large land owners and participated in politics -Central America; oligarchy inflexible -these did not grow into dynamic export producing countries, they remained producing mostly coffee -social structure; small # of EU elites, and masses of poor ppl, and it stayed this way b/c there was no emergence of middle class through industry -exercised control through repression and alliance with the military -this continued in force up until 70s-80s and had civil was in the region during the 70s -guerilla org’s tried to overthrow olig rule Mexico: fierce repression combined with modernization – leads to revolution -economic modernization; -Mexican revolution got rid of the olig – kind of -landed type of oligarchy reemerged – Mexico Under Porfirio Diaz -in power from 1876-1911 -these that happened under his rule are what led to Mexican revolution -Bureaucratic or technocratic caudillo -he represented the oligarchy more than anybody else -“cientificos” - a group of ppl who advised him -believed that if you wanted to modernize you needed to use modern tech and science; many of them became millionaires; didn’t believe mixed-blood pop’n had much to contribute to modernization, denigrated anything that was indian The Porfiriato Political Methods -largely repressive; especially in rural areas, had police force to control rural unrest -used press censorship -manipulated elections; there were elections but manipulated -expanded gov’t bureaucracy; payroll expanded by 900% - brought ppl in, gave them salaries, and this would make them tolerant of his rule -as you begin to modernize, middle class ppl tend to want to P in politics Modernization -was really big on increasing exports; particularly agricultural and mineral exports -b/c Mexico had problems with foreign debt, it didn’t have a dynamic or large business sector, so thought the best way to develop was through foreign investment 1 -in his efforts to increase agri exports, he wanted to increase the amount of land devoted to agri production and exports, but problem was a lot of the land was in hand of the church and indigenous pop’n; his solution to this was ways in which these lands could be used for production of goods for export, passed laws that required indian communal lands and church lands to be sold off in the 80s -also wanted to build railways, so brought in survey companies to survey for this; in exchange for survey work would grant the companies large areas of land, and well as the railway companies received land -there was a huge surge in landless peasants Positive Results -he did get the public debt under control; was in large debt when came into office, when he left was in surplus -he quadrupled silver production – became the second largest copper producer in the world -were thousands of new factories est, but particularly in northern Mexico, was a period of industrialization -infrastructure improved; railways were established, and huge in flow of foreign capital Negative Results -decline in food production ; as land became concentrated big land owners didn’t really produce anything on it, and if they did it was agri products for export -decline in production of food for domestic consumption -large peasant class; estimated that in 1910 average wage of Mexican peasant was a quarter of what it was in 1800 -peasant lost means of survival and were competing to get some kind of employment on large land holdings Social Consequences -drop in living standards -greater inequality than they ever had -revolution raised the hopes far change and land redistribution, and eventually brought to power a populous leader who did land redistribution -those fighting in revolution were peasants as well as middle class; Populism and Economic Change -populism is a consequence of the fact that oligarchies were so resistant to opening up political systems What is populism? -term scholars use in poli sci to label particular types of leaders, parties and gov’ts -populism often has negative connotations -invokes the ‘will of the ppl’ as a whole over anything else; not about individualism -desirability of a direct relationship btwn the leader and the ppl; unmediated by institutions -Latin America in particular it has some specific elements; 2 -nationalistic; opposed to foreign interests – the idea of there being an enemy, that the entire nation unites against -industrialization; sees industrialization as part of nation building; linked to this is the role of the state, the state has a central role in leading industrialization which is an essential component of the integrity and independence of the nation states Import Substitution Industrialization -populism is usually linked to ISI -occurred in LA in 1930s and continued until 1960s -occurred in some countries more than others; more so in larger countries, and thos that had dynamic export led growth previously (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico) -it is the manufacture of previously imported products -beginning with light consumer goods (eg. Textiles, footwear) -the whole process was triggered by the great depression and WWII -no longer had foreign exchange to buy products that they previously imported, so they thougth about producing them domestically -during WWII EU and US countries started producing war materials, so this continued the process of ISI b/c no longer making goods to send to LA -gave rise to new social groups; working group of those who worked in factories, middle class groups (managers of companies), and the expansion of the state -these groups were very imp’t b/c many of their support became the new social basis for the populist movement that emerged The Populist Movement -the charismatic caudillo leader was at the top of it -caudillo’s were warriors; they were thought of as strong men -they demonstrate strong leadership, so ppl are loyal to hin -also has a coalition of followers, and they are various combinations of the groups listed -workers- most likely supporters -middle class -small and medium business; came with ISI, wanted someone to protect their interests -faction of the military; didn’t like the oligarchy is some cases -the rural poor (sometimes) -LA populism is usually an urban phenomenon; but in some cases things were done for the rural poor Examples of populist leaders -Juan Domingo Peron; Argentina -Lazaro Cardenas; Mexico -Jacabo Arbenz; Guatemala -Getulio Vargas: Brazil 3 -populist movements are reformist, not revolutionary -many movements/leaders had populist features Heterogeneous Interests within the Populist coalition -the charismatic leaders holds it all together but all groups want something different -working class; want wages, benefits, etc. -small and medium business – protection, easy credit, cheap inputs- easy loans, low interest rates, cheap energy -middle sectors – wanted jobs in the gov’t of course -military; wanted increased expenditures on the military- higher salaries, military was nationalistic and wanted war materials produced domestically -rural poor; wanted better wages, land, social benefits -was dependent upon a
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